Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper Papers, 1895-1959  PDF  XML

Overview of the Collection

Archibald, Norman, 1894-1975; Draper, Hazel Archibald
Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper Papers
1895-1959 (inclusive)
1918-1935 (bulk)
3 boxes, (1.71 cubic feet)
Collection Number
1982.105 (accession 1), 2009.3.4 (accession 2)
Scrapbooks, photographs and papers belonging to brother and sister from Seattle, both of whom served during World War I
Museum of History & Industry, Sophie Frye Bass Library
Sophie Frye Bass Library
Museum of History & Industry
P.O. Box 80816
Seattle, WA
Telephone: 206-324-1126
Fax: 206-780-1533
Access Restrictions

The collection is open to the public by appointment.


Biographical NoteReturn to Top

Norman S. Archibald (April 7, 1894-September 1975) and Hazel M. Archibald Draper (March 28, 1891-February 1973) were the only children of Silas Archibald and Elizabeth J. Langille Archibald, naturalized American citizens originally from Canada. The family lived at 1206 Minor Avenue in Seattle.

Norman Archibald (also known as "Jim") graduated from Broadway High School in Seattle, attended the University of Washington for two years and graduated from Cornell University. Upon the U.S. declaration of war on Germany in 1917, Archibald left home determined to become an aviator and fly on the front against the enemy. After intensive training in Texas and France, Archibald served as a Chasse pilot in France, becoming a member of the 95th Air Squadron, First Pursuit Group on July 1, 1918. Lieutenant Archibald made daily flights at the front until September 8, when his SPAD aircraft was shot down behind enemy lines in St. Mihiel and he was taken prisoner by the Germans. Archibald was held in prison camps at Karlsruhe and elsewhere, not released until November 28, eleven days after the signing of the Armistice. Archibald recounts his experience, from his decision to become an aviator in 1917 through his reunion with his sister Hazel in France after his release, in his 1935 book Heaven High, Hell Deep. Archibald returned to military service in 1942, receiving a commission as captain in the United States Air Force.

Norman Archibald died in 1975. The Norman Archibald Charitable Foundation was established in 1977 to support youth and child development programs; higher education and libraries; museums and the performing arts; and family and social services in the Puget Sound region of Washington State.

Hazel Marjorie Archibald also served in France in World War I, with the American Red Cross in Paris. She was accepted for service in October 1918; her decision was likely influenced by the capture and imprisonment of her brother in France the previous month. Archibald, a talented pianist and popular songwriter, worked as an entertainer in the Red Cross Hospital Hut Service, later transferring to the vocational department, inspired by her experience with wounded GIs. While in France in late 1918, Archibald continually sought information on the condition and whereabouts of her brother, finally reuniting with him in Tours, France in early December. Hazel Archibald continued to serve in the Red Cross until May 1919.

After the war, Hazel Archibald worked as a staff writer for the Seattle Times , penning a regular feature on a variety of topics under the pseudonym "Dora Dean." Archibald moved to New York around 1921, where she successfully pursued her career as a songwriter and performer, self-publishing the sheet music to her songs, one of which was used in a musical production on Broadway.

On November 12, 1926 Hazel Archibald married Eben S. Draper, son of a former Massachusetts governor and himself a member of the Massachusetts House and Senate during the 1920s. Living in Boston, she continued composing music at least until the 1940s; in 1944 she created an operetta to be performed as a benefit for United Nations Relief.

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

These papers, photographs and scrapbooks document the intersecting experiences of a Seattle brother and sister serving in France during World War I. Through collected newspaper clippings, telegraphs, notes and photographs, mostly from 1918, emerges a picture of a young aviator captured by the Germans in France and the dedication of his sister who, while working tirelessly entertaining GIs in France, continued to search for her captured younger brother. Additional materials fill out the portrait of Hazel Archibald Draper as an ambitious and successful pianist and songwriter, and of Norman Archibald making his mark as a successful author, with his first hand account of his wartime experience, which was reviewed positively in newspapers nation-wide.

Use of the CollectionReturn to Top

Restrictions on Use

The Museum of History & Industry is the owner of the materials in the Sophie Frye Bass Library and makes available reproductions for research, publication, and other uses. Written permission must be obtained from MOHAI before any reproduction use. The museum does not necessarily hold copyright to all of the materials in the collections. In some cases, permission for use may require seeking additional authorization from the copyright owners.

Preferred Citation

Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper Papers , Museum of History & Industry, Seattle

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Arranged by accession, then series by individual within each accession:

  • 1982.105: Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper scrapbooks and loose materials, 1916-1970
    • Norman Archibald materials
    • Hazel Archibald Draper materials
  • 2009.3.4: Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper papers, 1895-1959
    • Norman Archibald materials
    • Hazel Archibald Draper materials

Location of Collection

15a.2.10 (Box 2)

Location of Collection

15a.3.4 (Box 3)

Location of Collection

12a.3.15 (Box 1 - scrapbooks)

Acquisition Information

Accession 1982.105: Gift of Archibald Foundation Estate via Larry Miller, May 27, 1982.

Accession 2009.3.4: Gift of Estate of Norman S. Archibald via Pacific National Bank of Washington, 1976.

Processing Note

Pages of the Norman Archibald scrapbook were removed from portfolio and foldered.

Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

1982.105:  Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper scrapbooks and loose materials, 1916-1970Return to Top

Each scrapbook included loose materials dispersed between scrapbook pages or in accompanying envelopes and folders. These are described separately.

Container(s) Description Dates
Norman Archibald materials
1982.105.1.1: Norman Archibald scrapbook
20 pages 18 x 24 inches
Scrapbook consists of reviews of and articles about Norman "Jim" Archibald's book Heaven High and Hell Deep from newspapers across the country.
1935 January-February
1982.105.1.2: Other scrapbook pages
2 pages
Clippings and ephemera related to Norman Archibald's imprisonment and release
1982.105.1.3: Loose clippings
1 folder
Wartime clippings (1918); mentions of Heaven High, Hell Deep (1935; 1964); and a newspaper photograph of Archibald with Guendolen Plestcheeff at Seattle Art Museum (1970).
1982.105.1.4: Papers
1 folder
Contains a list of Officers of the 95th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group and photocopies of reports from the period during in which Archibald crashed and went missing.
circa 1918
1982.105.1.5: Photographs
3 photographs
2 photographs of servicemen and officers in formation in an unidentified city; one photograph of Norman Archibald sitting with others at an event (circa 1960s).
circa 1960s; undated
Hazel Archibald Draper materials
1982.105.2.1: Hazel Archibald Draper scrapbook
22 unbound scrapbook pages 18 x 22 inches
Scrapbook consists of clippings documenting Hazel Archibald Draper's life from 1913-1926. Clippings document her prominence on Seattle society pages, and articles from the early 1920s report on the success of her musical career, as both composer and performer, in New York. Numerous clippings document her service as an entertainer for the Red Cross Hospital Hut branch in Paris, including a series of articles written by Hazel Archibald about her experience. Clippings also document the wartime capture, imprisonment and return of Norman Archibald. The scrapbook also includes an account of Archibald's dance with the Prince of Wales at an event the Empress Hotel in 1919, and announcements of her marriage to Eben S. Draper in 1926.
1982.105.2.2: Clippings
1 folder
A folder of loose clippings from 1926, 1944, 1954, and 1963 includes wedding announcements and clippings about Draper's musical compositions and programs.
1982.105.2.3-7: Photographs
5 photographs
Photographs include: a portrait of Norman and Hazel Archibald by Imogen Cunningham;one portrait photograph depicting an unidentified man; one full-length portrait of Norman Archibald in uniform (1918); one photograph of little girl, possibly Hazel Archibald; and a group photograph of Native Alaskans
1918; undated
1982.105.2.8-9: Artwork
2 items
One drawing of a woman and one painting of a river, artists unknown.

2009.3.4:  Norman Archibald and Hazel Archibald Draper papers, 1895-1959Return to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Norman Archibald materials
2009.3.4.1: Silas Archibald correspondence
2 items
Includes a letter from the American Red Cross, dated October 14, 1918, informing Norman Archibald's father that he is a prisoner of war at Karlsruhe and not wounded.
1895, 1918
2009.3.4.2: Clipping on Archibald's US Air Force commission
1 folder
2009.3.4.3-.5: Heaven High, Hell Deep promotional materials, reviews and newspaper serialization
3 folders
2009.3.4.6: Watercolor of barn doors, signed by Bailey Fluery
2009.3.4.7-.8: Norman Archibald with his Spad airplane
2 photographs
The "kicking mule" emblem of the 95th Aero Squadron is visible on the plane in one of the photos.
2009.3.4.9: Portrait of Norman Archibald
circa 1918
2009.3.4.10: Norman Archibald with Irish wolf hound near staircase
Photograph perforated with words "Unfinished Proof Bachrach."
circa 1920
2009.3.4.11-12: Unidentified mansion
Photographs perforated with words "Unfinished Proof Bachrach."
circa 1920
Hazel Archibald Draper materials
War service
2009.3.4.13: American Red Cross service papers
1 folder
Permits, orders and telegrams related to Archibald's service with the American Red Cross in Paris.
2009.3.4.14: Papers regarding the imprisonment of Norman Archibald
1 folder
Telegrams and letters sent to Hazel Archibald while she was in Red Cross service in Paris, regarding the status of her brother. Includes one clipping and a letter written by Norman Archibald to Lieutenant Joseph Waterman of the British Royal Flying Corps (dated October 10, 1918) notifying him of his imprisonment and condition.
2009.3.4.15: Poems and writing about war, by others
3 items
2009.3.4.16: Ephemera
3 items
Paris lingerie store receipt; handwritten note on Life magazine letterhead rejecting a submission; and an invitation to a ball honoring the Prince of Wales at the Empress Hotel in Victoria, B.C.
2009.3.4.17: Clippings
1 folder
3; 3/2
2009.3.4.18: Red Cross service photograph album
1 album with 185 photographs; 1 folder with 34 loose photographs removed from album
Hazel Archibald titled this album "Active Service with the American Red Cross in France during Allied War with Germany." The album consists of photographs and ephemera related to her service. Ephemera include telegrams about her service assignments as well as about her brother Norman's imprisonment, and permits for travel as part of the Red Cross. Photographs depict Hazel Archibald in Paris and other locations in France, including Versailles, Brest, and Amiens. Includes photographs of Norman after his release as prisoner of war (December 1918); a prison in Germany; an American Red Cross building; wounded soldiers; and a graveyard. Hazel Archibald is shown posed with other female Red Cross workers as well as with military officers, including General John J. Pershing.
Music career
2009.3.4.19: Music copyrights
1 folder
2009.3.4.20: Sheet music
1 folder
Sheet music to compositions with words and music written by Hazel Archibald, published in New York.
2009.3.4.21: Bound orchestration manuscript for "Pas de Deux" by Hazel A. Draper
2009.3.4.22: Court at Buckingham Palace
1 folder
Correspondence, invitation and photograph related to Hazel A. Draper's presentation at the Fourth Court at Buckingham Palace, June 24, 1932.
2009.3.4.23: Announcement for program of Hazel Draper compositions at the Plymouth Theater, April 23, 1944
1 item
2009.3.4.24: Clippings
1 folder
1926, 1959, undated
2009.3.4.25: Hazel Archibald in Red Cross uniform
circa 1918
2009.3.4.26: Portrait of Hazel Archibald
Michelson (photographer)
circa 1920s
2009.3.4.27: Hazel Archibald arm in arm with man in crowd
Photograph appears to have been printed off of frames from a film
2009.3.4.28: Performers, most in blackface, on stage
Writing on verso: Typical Christmas show picture. You understand what I was explaining to you I assume.
2009.3.4.29: Scrapbook of "Dora Dean" clippings
After the war, Hazel Archibald worked for the Seattle Times, writing articles on a variety of subjects under the pseudonym "Dora Dean."

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

Subject Terms

  • Air pilots--Military
  • Prisoners of war--Family relationships
  • Prisoners of war--Germany
  • Prisoners of war--United States
  • Women entertainers
  • World War, 1914-1918
  • World War, 1914-1918--Aerial operations
  • World War, 1914-1918--Campaigns--France

Personal Names

  • Archibald, Norman, 1894-1975--Photographs
  • Draper, Hazel Archibald--Photographs

Corporate Names

  • American Red Cross in France

Geographical Names

  • Paris (France)

Form or Genre Terms

  • Photographs
  • Scrapbooks
  • Sheet music