Andrew Johnson (Anders Johansson) Oral History Interview, 1982 PDF
- Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson)
- 1982 (inclusive)19821982
- 2 file folders
2 sound cassettes
- Collection Number
- An oral history interview with Andrew Johnson, a Swedish immigrant.
- Pacific Lutheran University, Archives and Special Collections
Archives and Special Collections
Pacific Lutheran University
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Biographical NoteReturn to Top
Anders Johansson was born on March 4, 1900 in Hallaram, Jämjö Parish, Blekinge Län, Sweden. Anders' grandparents had been farmers, but his father pursued a career as a brick burner. As a child, Anders spent a lot of time in the brickyard when he was not at school. He attended the school at State Church, a Covenant Church, for six years, but he was confirmed in the Lutheran Church. During the holidays, the Johansson's celebrated in a traditional Swedish manner with the customary food and services. Although they enjoyed Sweden, the family eventually chose to emigrate. In 1906, when Anders' father struggled to find work, he decided to move to America and found a job in a fuel yard. Anders changed his name to Andrew Johnson when he immigrated. Andrew and the rest of his family-his mother, three brothers, and four sisters-joined his father in 1914. The Johansson family lived in Tacoma, Washington, and Andrew had to forgo school in order to work for Tacoma Piping Works. They moved to Fife, Washington and bought a larger house on two acres of land. Andrew earned ten cents an hour working for a chair company and later found work at Todd Ship Yard in Tacoma. When the shipyard closed, Andrew moved to St. Paul, Minnesota. At the Covenant Church in St. Paul, Andrew met his first wife, Alice Skog, whom he married in 1929. They had two daughters together, but the oldest one, Eleane, died of respiratory difficulties when she was three and a half years old. The family moved back to Tacoma in 1937, and Andrew began working as the caretaker at a church camp on Covenant Beach. Andrew says he never quite felt at home in the United States. Alice did not enjoy living at Covenant Beach, so the Johnson's moved to Seattle in 1940. Andrew found a job as a machinist and maintained that position for 28 years. After retiring in 1968, Andrew and Alice moved to Puyallup. Soon after, Alice had a stroke and was quite restricted in her mobility; finally, she had to move to the infirmary where she died in 1981. Encouraged by Alice's nurses to take a break, Andrew traveled to the Holy Land in 1980, where he first met Gladys. After Alice's death, Andrew contacted Gladys, and the two of them married, being the oldest couple Andrew's minister had ever married. The next year Andrew and Gladys took a trip to Sweden with their church. Andrew could still speak some Swedish while on their vacation, but he has not really maintained Swedish traditions in America.
Father: Alfred Johan Johansson. Mother: Hilda Cecilia Martinsson. Paternal Grandfather: Johan Andersson. Paternal Grandmother: Anna Maria Andersson. Maternal Grandfather: Andreas Martinsson. Maternal Grandmother: Anna Maria Andersson. Brothers and Sisters: Eiline Johansson, Erik Johansson, Margaret Johansson, Martha Johansson, Folke Johansson, Henry Johansson, Wilma Johansson. Spouse: Alice Elvira Skog, Gladys Johnson. Children: Eleane Johnson, Dorothy Bernice Johnson.
Content DescriptionReturn to Top
The interview was conducted with Andrew Johnson on November 10, 1982 in Tacoma, Washington. This interview contains information on personal background, emigration, Scandinavian churches and organizations, travel, marriages, and a return trip to Sweden. The interview also includes photographs of Andrew Johnson at his mother's home in Sweden, Andrew at grammar school in Sweden, Andrew and other machinists at Coast Iron and Machine Works in Tacoma, WA (1918), Andrew and Alice on their wedding day (1929), and Andrew at the time of the interview. The interview was conducted in English.
Use of the CollectionReturn to Top
Administrative InformationReturn to Top
Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top
The partial interview transcription highlights important aspects of the interview. Numbers may be used as guides to important subjects. Two numbers separated by a slash indicate that the first number is for cassette and the second for CD.
|206, side 1||018: Andrew Johnson
His name was Anders Johansson. It was changed on his immigration papers. Born in Hallarum, Blekinge län, Sweden. A bishop had so many "län" under his authority. A "län" is a religious division. Blekinge is in southeastern Sweden. Borders with the Baltic Sea.
|206, side 1||145: MOTHER AND MATERNAL GRANDPARENTS
Mother's name was Hilda Martinsson. Her parents were small farmers and fishermen. Andrew's mother was born on an island off the coast of Blekinge. Grandfather was Andreas Martinsson.
|206, side 1||172: FATHER AND PATERNAL GRANDPARENTS
Born and raised in Jämjö. They were "crofters." They rented a piece of land from a larger farm. Used it as they wanted. Paid rent in either money or labor.
|206, side 1||227:
Andrew was born on March 4, 1900. (See also I-018)
|206, side 1||236: PARENTS
Lived near a village, which manufactured bricks for its main industry. Father was a brick burner. Andrew describes the process of brick making in detail. Dig clay, mix it with sand, cut bricks, dry, and bake. Andrew used to play in the brickyard. Learned his love for machinery there. Andrew's parents were also crofters in a way.
|206, side 1||329: THE BRICKYARD
The farmer who owned the property discovered that the clay on his property was very good. Got in touch with industrialists from the city. Decided he should start a brick plant. The farmer couldn't get enough efficient help. Sold the place to a man from the city that knew more about the brick industry. He got more efficient help and modernized the brick plant. Andrew's dad was a brick burner at this time. The plant closed for a couple of years while being modernized. His father worked in sugar beet fields in Skåne during this time.
|206, side 1||372: CROFTERS
Parents rented a piece of land from a big farm for 15 Skr or 15 days labor per year. They owned the building on the land. They kept sheep, chickens, and pigs. Grew vegetables. Used timber for fuel.
|206, side 1||417: BROTHERS AND SISTERS
Four boys and four girls in the family. Andrew is the oldest. Eiline Forslund is a retired office worker in Tacoma, Washington. Erik was a factory worker in Tacoma. Margaret hasn't been healthy. Has only worked for Eiline cleaning the Forslund's motel. Martha has passed away. Worked in offices in Tacoma. Folke lives in Milton, Washington. Has gone to university. Worked in Alaska during the summers to finance his education. Studied agriculture. Got a FHA degree. Worked for an experimental station in Puyallup, Washington for many years. Retired now. These five were born in Sweden. The two youngest were born in Tacoma, Washington.
|206, side 1||519: SCHOOL IN SWEDEN
Andrew finished grade school in Sweden. Loved to study. Strict teacher first three years. Andrew didn't get along with her. Transferred to a middle school. Had a woman teacher. Andrew fell in love with her. Had no difficulties in school then. Had a man teacher his last two years of school. Learned a lot from him. Took his manual training from this teacher. All boys took this course. Girls took sewing courses. Andrew finished school after six years. Usually took seven years. Long walk to school. School started at 9am. They left home at 7am. Couldn't go to school if there was too much snow.
|206, side 1||597: CHURCH
Went to school at State Church. His family's religious affiliation was with the Covenant Church. This church started because many people felt the State Church was too formal. The laymen started having services in the chapels. Before 1850, one couldn't have a religious meeting unless the parish minister was present. The chapels where people met were called "missionshus." The Covenant Church in Sweden was called Svenska Missionsförbundet. The different chapels got together, forming a covenant. Were interested in forming missions outside of, as well within Sweden. Andrew mentions Waldenström as being an important leader of the Covenant Church. Andrew's mother was more interested in religion than his father. People from the islands tended to be more religions than the mainlanders.
|206, side 1||720: KARLSKRONA NAVY STATION
Not far from where Andrew lived in Sweden. The system before 1870 included professional sailors and soldiers. These men were like crofters. They had homes, which they got from the government. They were called "boatsmen." Andrew remembers an old retired sailor who lived nearby. He had long earrings. Had many stories. Andrew knew many old sailors. One was 100 years old. Could remember Napoleon. There was a religious revival among the military. Andrew's maternal grandfather help religious meetings for the sailors in his home. Andrew's mother grew up in this environment. She was strong in her religious convictions.
|206, side 1||829: CONFIRMATION
Was confirmed in the Lutheran Church. People didn't dislike the Lutheran Church, but they wanted more religious freedom.
|206, side 1||848: RELIGIOUS REVIVAL IN SWEDEN
Started in the 18th century when Sweden was at war with Russia. Swedish prisoners of war in Russia met some German prisoners of war. Swedish prisoners (known as "strundisterna" which comes from the German word "strunder" or power and the prayer hour) picked up this religious revival from the German soldiers. When they came back to Sweden, they brought this new spirit with them. They brought about a religious awakening.
|206, side 1||895: CHRISTMAS
Julotta Christmas service early on Christmas morning. This was in the Lutheran Church. Andrew sang in the choir at Christmas time a couple of times. His teacher started this choir.
|206, side 1||919: CONFIRMATION
(See also I-829) Enjoyed confirmation classes. Got good grades. Went into a lot of church history. Found the reasons behind the traditions of the church.
|206, side 1||941: CHRISTMAS
(See also I-895) Had a Christmas tree and opened presents on Christmas Eve. Had lutfisk, rice mush (risgrynsgroet), Kroppkaka (a tradition in Blekinge and Oeland, potato dumplings filled with meat), coffee bread and cookies.
|206, side 1||985: TRADITIONAL FOODS OF BLEKINGE
Ate a lot of fish because of their location. Ate a lot of cod. Ate a lot of Baltic herring. Caught lots of them in March. Bigger fish than smelt. Could fry them or salt them. Ate Islands sill (Iceland's herring). Ate chicken, wild rabbit, pork, homemade sausage. His mother made sausage. His family has lost this tradition. Grew their own rye. Brought it to the flour mill and had it ground. Mother did the baking in a big oven. Built a big fire in the oven.
|206, side 1||1044: EMIGRATION, SWEDEN 1906
Difficult times in Sweden. The brick plant shut down. Andrew's father couldn't find work. Andrew's mother's sister, Hanna Martinson came home to Sweden from Tacoma, Washington for a visit. She ran a boardinghouse in Tacoma. Said Alfred could come to America with her. It only cost $30 for a ticket to America. Andrew's mother brother, Magnus decided to go with them. They left in 1908. Andrew's father had to write to the high court in Stockholm to get a special permit because he was still at the age when he belonged to the military. He didn't go with Andrew's aunt, uncle, and aunt's husband who had also decided to go. He went by himself a little later in 1908. Father had no problems on the journey. U.S. immigration was very efficient. They kept track of people so they wouldn't get lost.
|206, side 1||1117: 1912
Mother's brother, Magnus, and sister's husband came back to Sweden. Father was still working in Tacoma, Washington. Was a teamster. Sold fuel in a fuel yard.
|206, side 2||026: REASONS FOR FAMILY'S EMIGRATION
Sister's husband, John decided after two months that he wanted to go back to America. They sold everything. Andrew's grandmother decided to go to America with her youngest daughter. Andrew's mother would have been the last of her family left in Sweden. She wrote to her husband. Said she wanted to come to the U.S. She and the children left for America in May 1914. Her brother, Magnus ended up staying in Sweden.
|206, side 2||084: PREPARING FOR THE TRIP
Put an ad in the newspaper that they intended to sell their home. Auctioned off furniture and belongings. Couldn't take more than the bare necessities with them. Sold their house and the contract they had with the farmer. Used the money to buy their tickets. Competition between the different steamship companies because they wanted the immigrant trade. Got advertisements from the Scandinavian-American Line, Cunnard Line, White Star Line.
|206, side 2||146: TRIP TO AMERICA
Decided to go on the Cunnard Line. Went from Liverpool, England to New York. They traveled from Sweden to Esbjerg, Denmark. From Esbjerg to Hull, England. Took 24 hours to travel across the North Sea. Andrew was fourteen. Had to stay with the men on the boat. Later went with his mother to help with the other children who were seasick. Later Andrew went up on deck. They had a big kettle of soup up there. This was a Danish ship. They came to Hull in the evening. A big English sailor took them to the train. The doors were locked after they got in the train. The English countryside was green, wet, and foggy. Reminds him of Washington. His aunt's husband spoke English. Had to ask for water on the train. A bus, pulled by horses took them to a hotel when they got to Liverpool. The men slept in one big room. Had to stay in Liverpool for several days. Andrew and his family traveled third class. He remembers seeing really poor people, who were traveling steerage. Took 3-5 days to cross the Atlantic. The ship traveled quickly. Were given examinations and those who had been vaccinated were vaccinated. Small Pox vaccinations made some people sick. Andrew had been vaccinated when he was little. One of his sisters got sick. Had a Norwegian nurse help them. There were many Norwegians on the Lusitania.
|206, side 2||387: ELLIS ISLAND
Were put on a ferry to Ellis Island upon arrival in New York. Describes their arrival to the U.S. being recorded. They were tagged and taken to the train. Somehow, through the immigration process his name, Anders Johansson was changed to Andrew Johnson.
|206, side 2||455: TRAIN TRIP
First stop was in Chicago. No furniture at the depot. Spent a day there. They had some food with them. His uncle could order food for them. Remembers having pie on the train. Had had it before in Sweden. Tremendous American influence in Sweden in this way. One in every four Swedes left for America. Got on the train in Chicago. The doors were locked. Stayed on the train until they got to Tacoma, Washington. Sat in seats. Couldn't lay down or stretch out. Took about six days to get from New York to Tacoma. Three weeks to get from Sweden to Tacoma.
|206, side 2||547: ARRIVAL IN TACOMA
His mother had another sister in Tacoma who was married to a man who was well off. Had a nice home and an automobile. Lived on the north end of Tacoma. He rented a bus for Andrew's family. They were a group of seventeen. Cleaned up and had a good meal at his aunt's. He hadn't seen his dad for six years. He didn't know Andrew who'd grown up. They found a home on I Street.
|206, side 2||607: FIRST IMPRESSIONS
Not used to living in a big city. Had to keep the young ones from running out in the street. They had roller skates instead of ice skates.
|206, side 2||620: WORK
Andrew had to go to work right away. He should have gone to school until he was 16 years old, but his mother and aunt went to the Industrial Commission and got permission for Andrew to start working. Made toilet seats and boxes for Tacoma Piping Works. They moved to Wood Pipe on Center Street in Tacoma, Washington.
|206, side 2||663:
Family moved to Fife, Washington. Got a bigger house and two acres of land. Rent was only $7 per month. Transportation was bad in those days. He started work at 8am. Left home at 5:45am. Finished working at 4pm. Couldn't get a ride home until 6pm.
|206, side 2||683:
Family joined the Covenant Church on I Street. Got a job from a man he met there, who was part owner of West Coast Chair Co.. Worked from 7am-6pm. First job earned 10 cents per hour.
|206, side 2||707: SCHOOL
Went to school for one term, the first fall they were here. Went to Central School, which had just been built. In his class, there were two Swedes (a cousin and himself), and boy and girl from Holland, and four Greeks. They were all put in the first grade at first. After a week, they were moved to third grade. Finally they were promoted to the 8th grade. The Greek children found arithmetic difficult. Andrew "went into the woods and cried his heart out" when he had to quit school.
|206, side 2||758: FATHER'S WORK
Andrew had to quit school and start working when his father got laid off. Father was working highways. Lived in a camp. They got the farm in Fife when his father started working on the highways. Father came back to town (from the camp) after 1915. When WWI started it became easier to find work. They bought the farm in Fife from an Austrian family. All the rent they paid went towards buying it. Freeway construction later took over the home at Fife. They were forced to move. The home and property were appraised at $19,500. The government finally paid them $17,000. People in the valley were angry with the government for taking all of their property. This was around 1958-1960.
|206, side 2||890: CITIZENSHIP
Government people were very difficult to deal with. Took out his first papers in 1920 (Declaration of Intention). Took out second papers in 1924. Father could have done this for the whole family but he was afraid. Andrew went night school and his father went along. Andrew's father passed the test on his second try. Government officials are much more accommodating now.
|206, side 2||931: WORK
Was working for West Coast Chair. Wanted to learn a trade. Had an uncle working for Puget Sound Iron and Steel. Andrew got a job as an apprentice iron molder. Didn't like this job. Couldn't get in the machine shop without experience. Put an ad in the newspaper. Was answered by a business on 24th Street in Tacoma. Worked there for two years. Got next job at Todd Ship Yard in Tacoma. Shipyard closed the next year.
|206, side 2||980: MOVING TO MINNESOTA
Hard to find a job after working in the shipyard. Worked for Foss Tug & Barge for ten months. Wanted to work in the machinist trade. Decided it was best to go back east. Intended to go to Chicago but had such a good time in St. Paul, Minnesota that he never made it to Chicago. Stayed with relatives.
|206, side 2||998: MEETING SPOUSE
Met first wife, Alice Skog at the Covenant Church in St. Paul, Minnesota. They stayed in St. Paul for thirteen years.
|206, side 2||1014: CHILDREN
Two girls. The daughter died when three and half years old. She had asthma. Doctor advised them to move to a different climate. They moved back to Tacoma, Washington. Youngest daughter, Dorothy Williams, is married and lives in Puyallup. She has a son.
|206, side 2||1046: LIVING IN THE U.S.A.
Never really felt at home here. While in his teens, he would have gone back to Sweden. Immigrants often treated prejudicially. Brothers and sisters got along better in the U.S. because they got to go to school. Mother wanted to go back. Father knew they couldn't. "They'd already burned the bridges."
|206, side 2||1119: DIFFICULTIES OF LIVING IN AMERICA
Difficult to meet other young people. Wasn't even happy in his church. Most of the young people were born in the U.S. "Looked down at you as what they call a greenhorn. You didn't know nothing." He was surprised to find this attitude towards immigrants in church. He was much happier with the church in St. Paul, Minnesota.
|207, side 1||011: CHURCH IN ST. PAUL
Not as much prejudice against Scandinavians there. During WWI and the 1920s there was a lot of prejudice against the Scandinavians. The Scandinavian-American Bank was declared bankrupt by the government. Andrew lost money because of that. Got back only a small percentage. Banks were not insured until Roosevelt came into office.
|207, side 1||059: COMING BACK TO TACOMA, WASHINGTON
Came back in 1937. Couldn't find work. Became caretaker of Covenant Beach where the church had a camp.
|207, side 1||075: CHURCH CAMP AT COVENANT BEACH
Earned 35 cents an hour as caretaker. The camp director was not at the camp at all times. He was also a certified public accountant. He was a Norwegian. Name was Wendels (?). He'd help Andrew with some of the work.
|207, side 1||100: SCANDINAVIAN-AMERICAN BANK
Wendels (?) told Andrew that the American's wanted the Scandinavians to invest their money in the Bank of California and the other banks. Scandinavians were industrious and prosperous. They wanted the Scandinavian-American Bank out of the way. (See also I-011)
|207, side 1||137: MARRIAGE
Married in 1929 at the home of his wife's parents.
|207, side 1||157: SCANDINAVIAN ORGANIZATIONS
Belonged to a Scandinavian church, but not to any Scandinavian lodges. Andrew and his family were raised like "puritans." It was wrong to dance or play cards so they didn't join any lodges. This "puritan" lifestyle was wrong in some ways. "You lived in a cage." It made life here difficult. Church was too strict. Kicked out of church if you played pool, played a waltz on the piano, or carried a deck of playing cards in your pocket. Dancing got a bad name because those dancing always got drunk and fights broke out.
|207, side 1||282: STAR (?) IRON WORKS
Enjoyed living at Covenant Beach but his wife didn't like it there. Wanted to be in town. Got a job at Star Iron Works through a friend who worked at Isaacson Iron Works. Moved to Seattle in 1940. Rented an apartment. Later bought a house in west Seattle.
|207, side 1||348: WORK DURING WWII
Much easier to find work. Heard about the Continental Can Company in Seattle through a friend at the Covenant Church. Andrew got a job as a machinist there. Foreman there were strict. Superintendent thought Andrew couldn't handle the job. He stayed there for 28 years.
|207, side 1||466: CHURCH
Worked swing shift for thirteen years. Couldn't be active in the church during those years. Went to church on Sunday mornings. Wife was never very active in church. Wife worked as a substitute in department stores for many years.
|207, side 1||491: RETIRED IN 1968
Moved to Puyallup in 1970 and bought a house there in 1971. He and his wife were visiting their daughter in Tacoma in 1970 well after that. Andrew's wife fainted and had a stroke. She was never very well after that. He took care of her until 1978. His brothers and sisters in Puyallup, Washington and Riverside, Washington said is moved there, they would help him take care of his wife and they would be near Good Samaritan Hospital where she could get therapy. He sold his house in Puyallup in 1978 and moved to Tacoma, Washington. Tells about when he got sick and was in the hospital for three weeks. When he got home, his wife has been taken to the infirmary. He was told he couldn't take care of her anymore. She stayed in the infirmary until she died in January 1981.
|207, side 1||568: TRAVELING
Took a trip to the Holy Land in 1980. Saw an ad for the trip. Didn't see how he could go. He was always with his wife at the infirmary. Made her coffee and put her to bed. One of the officers at the infirmary said they would take care of her if there something he would like to do. He went on the trip. Met Gladys. He was afraid of her at first because he was married. Gladys was a widow. He told her he couldn't see her after the trip was over because he was married but he would like to have her address.
|207, side 1||667: WIFE'S DEATH
Andrew came home from his trip in October 1980. His wife got worse around Christmas of 1980. He had to take her to the hospital. She passed away in the middle of January 1981. She had had two or three strokes. Couldn't write. Could only speak a few words.
|207, side 1||712:
Sat by himself for a couple of months. He called Gladys who lived in the area. He started visiting her and then couldn't stay away. He got really sick in June 1981. Was in the hospital. Gladys helped him. He had an inner-ear infection.
|207, side 1||781: SECOND MARRIAGE
They went on trips together. Couldn't stay away from each other. Decided to get married. Their families insisted they have a wedding. Were married in the Covenant Church in October 1981. They are the oldest couple that their minister has married. Gladys went to another church before. Decided she'd go to the Covenant Church too.
|207, side 1||804: GLADYS' FAMILY
Two girls and a boy. They have accepted Andrew into their family. Patty studies occupational therapy. Barbara lives in Renton and works for Highline Community College. Al is a helicopter pilot.
|207, side 1||830: TRIPS TO SWEDEN
They went to Sweden in June 1982. Went with a group from the Covenant Church. The group of 53 met in Copenhagen, Denmark. Took a bus to Sweden. Went to the islands of Oeland and Gotland. Went to Stockholm. Took a trip to Helsinki, Finland. Went to Dalarna. Went to Sognefjord, Norway. Spent three days in Balestrand, Norway. Took the bus to Oslo, Norway. Stayed there for three days. Didn't got to his home in Blekinge, Sweden. They came within 30 kilometers of it. All of his friends in Sweden have passed away. His home is still there. It's used as a summerhouse and is owned by people living in Stockholm. His sister and brother-in-law have been there and took pictures of it.
|207, side 1||893: CHANGES IN SWEDEN
Sweden is much different now. People are well dressed and seem to have money. Sweden has "hippies" just like America does. Helsinki, Finland looked like any other city. Only difference was that many department stores sold items from Poland and Czechoslovakia.
|207, side 1||918: SWEDISH TRADITIONS AND LANGUAGE
First wife was an American born Swede. Didn't cook Swedish food. Andrew's parents cooked Swedish meals. First wife didn't speak Swedish, but she was confirmed in Swedish. Andrew was surprised that the language hasn't changed much in 65 years. Surprised when he could talk to a taxi driver in Sweden. Finished the interview with a few Swedish phrases and a Swedish song.
Names and SubjectsReturn to Top
- Subject Terms :
- Education -- Sweden
- Emigration and immigration
- Family -- Sweden
- Navy-yards and naval stations
- Ocean travel
- Railroad travel
- Swedish-Americans -- Ethnic identity
- Swedish-Americans--Social life and customs
- Personal Names :
- Andersson, Anna Maria
- Johnson, Alice Elvira
- Johnson, Andrew (Anders Johansson)--Interviews (creator)
- Johnson, Dorothy Bernice
- Johnson, Eleane
- Johnson, Gladys
- Skog, Alice Elvira
- Andersson, Johan
- Johansson, Alfred Johan
- Johansson, Anders
- Johnson, Andrew
- Martinsson, Andreas
- Martinsson, Hilda Cecilia
- Corporate Names :
- Foss Tug & Barge Company (Tacoma, Wash.)
- Lusitania (Steamship)
- Scandinavian-American Bank (Tacoma, Wash.)
- Swedish Covenant Church (Tacoma, Wash.)
- Family Names :
- Andersson family
- Johansson family
- Johnson family
- Martinsson family
- Skog family
- Geographical Names :
- Fife (Wash.)
- Hallarum, Blekinge province (Sweden)
- Seattle (Wash.)
- St. Paul (Minn.)
- Tacoma (Wash.)
- Form or Genre Terms :
- Oral histories
- Occupations :
- Iron Workers