Gustavus C. Doane Papers, 1860-1939  PDF

Overview of the Collection

Creator
Doane, Gustavus Cheyney, 1840-1892
Title
Gustavus C. Doane Papers
Dates
1860-1939
Quantity
2 linear feet
Collection Number
Collection 2211, MtBC, us (collection)
Summary
The Gustavus C. Doane Papers consist of personal and military correspondence, orders, reports, property returns, receipt books, research notes; and photographs. Subjects to which the papers pertain are: Indian wars including the Sioux, Nez Pearce, and Apache; the exploration of the Rocky Mountain area, especially Yellowstone National Park, the Snake River, and the Judith Basin areas; the Howgate polar expedition of 1880; the development and promotion of the Doane Centennial Tent; the history of the Second United States Cavalry.
Repository
Montana State University Library, Merrill G. Burlingame Special Collections
Montana State University-Bozeman Library
Merrill G Burlingame Special Collections
P.O. Box 173320
Bozeman, MT
59717-3320
Telephone: 406-994-4242
Fax: 406-994-2851
spcoll@www.lib.montana.edu
Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research.

Languages
English
Sponsor
Funding for encoding this finding aid was provided by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities


Biographical NoteReturn to Top

Gustavus Cheyney Doane was born in Galesburg, Illinois, on May 20, 1840, and grew up in California. He graduated from the University of the Pacific at Santa Clara in 1861, and afterwards enlisted in the "California Hundred," a federal volunteer unit absorbed by the Second Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry. Doane attained the rank of sergeant by 1864 when he resigned to accept a commission as lieutenant with the first regiment, Mississippi Marine Brigade. After the war Doane lived for a time in Yazoo City, Mississippi where he was appointed mayor by the Reconstruction authorities in 1867. In 1868 he applied for a commission with the army and was appointed second lieutenant in the Second U.S. Cavalry. He served with the regiment for the next 24 years, attaining the rank of captain in 1884. During his postwar career Doane was stationed at a variety of frontier posts in Montana, California, and Arizona, including Fort Ellis, Fort Custer, Fort Keogh, Fort Maginnis, the Presidio, and Fort Bowie. He participated in the Sioux war of 1876, the Nez Pearce War of 1877, and the Apache campaign of 1886. Doane gained a great deal of fame as an explorer, having led the first systematic exploration of present day Yellowstone National Park in the early 1870s, a survey of the Judith Basin area in 1874, a trip down the Snake River in 1876-77, and the Howgate polar expedition in Greenland in 1880. Towards the end of his life, Doane attempted unsuccessfully to gain the superintendency of Yellowstone National Park and to influence widespread army acceptance for his invention, the Doane Centennial Tent. He married twice, to Amelia Link in 1866 and to Mary Lee Hunter in 1878. Neither union resulted in offspring. Gustavus Cheyney Doane died on May 5, 1892.

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

The Doane papers consist of personal and military correspondence, orders, reports, property returns, receipt books, and research notes. Correspondents include: Mary Hunter Doane, Nancy Davis Doane, Anna G. Doane, Nelson A. Miles, John Gibbon, Samuel D. Sturgis, and James S. Brisbin. Subjects to which the papers pertain are: Indian wars including the Sioux, Nez Pearce, and Apache; the exploration of the Rocky Mountain area, especially Yellowstone National Park, the Snake River, and the Judith Basin areas; the Howgate polar expedition of 1880; the development and promotion of the Doane Centennial Tent; the history of the Second United States Cavalry.

While the papers were in the custody of Merrill G. Burlingame whatever original order that may have existed was lost during his efforts to transcribe portions of the documents and to write a biography of Gustavus Doane. Burlingame's own correspondence and notes became interfiled with the papers and by the time the materials were inventoried by Special Collections in 1992 it was no longer apparent which materials were original and which were transcriptions. The folder headings of the first inventory did suggest a rough arrangement based on subjects or proposed chapters for the biography Burlingame was planning to write. The present arrangement has preserved some of Burlingame's subject divisions in series 3. These subject files contain more substantial reports created or collected by Doane, and "case files" of materials such as affidavits and statements that he may have saved in these groups for presentation to others. Here, for example, can be found his collection of affidavits for missing property claims, his patent and specifications for the Doane Centennial tent, and extensive reports and field notes for the Judith Basin survey and the Snake River expedition. Other military documents have been gathered in chronological order within the files of series 2. These papers include military correspondence, orders, and other documents which cannot be determined to pertain to one particular subject or another.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top

Series 1:  Personal correspondence, 1864-1937Return to Top

Personal and family correspondence written or received by Gustavus C. Doane, his first wife Amelia Link Doane, second wife Mary Hunter Doane, mother Nancy Davis Doane, and sister Anna G. Doane, and a few other friends and relatives. The earliest letters from California describe conditions there during the Civil War. Other exchanges between Gustavus and Mary Doane describe experiences at various frontier posts in Montana and Arizona. The most extensive files contain letters from Mary at the Presidio, California and Gustavus on duty in southeastern Arizona during the first half of 1886. The file of letters from 1894-1937 pertain to Mary Hunter Doane. The letters have been chronologically arranged.

New: Digital images from selected folders are now available on those folder titles underlined and in bold print. These images are readable with browsers using Adobe Acrobat readers.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
1/1 1864-1869
1/2 1878-1879
1/3 1880
1/4 1881
1/5 1882
1/6 1884
1/7 1885
1/8 January 1-10, 1886
1/9 January 11-20, 1886
1/10 January 21-31, 1886
1/11 February 1-7, 1886
1/12 February 8-12, 1886
1/13 February 13-20, 1886
1/14 February 21-25, 1886
1/15 March 1886
1/16 April-May 1886
1/17 June 1886
1/18 July 1-15, 1886
1/19 July 16-31, 1886
1/20 August 2-12, 1886
1/21 August 16-31, 1886
1/22 September-November 1886
1/23 1886
1/24 1887
1/25 1888-1889
1/26 1890
1/27 1891-1892
1/28 1894-1937
1/29 undated

Series 2:  Military papers, 1864-1893Return to Top

Orders, letters, minor reports, clothing and equipment returns, and other military documents created or collected by Gustavus Doane during his post-Civil War career. Correspondents include Nelson A. Miles, Samuel D. Sturgis, and James S. Brisbin. Many of the orders and letters are "true copies," prepared by Doane or at Doane's request from originals held elsewhere. The documents are chronologically arranged

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
2/1
1868-1871
2/2
1872-1873
2/3
1874-1875
2/4
1876
2/5
January 1877
2/6
April 1877
2/7
May 1877
2/8 June 1877
2/9 July 1877
2/10 August 1877
2/11 September 1877
2/12 October 1877
2/13 November-December 1877
2/14 January-June 1878
2/15
July-December 1878
2/16
1879
2/17
1880
2/18
1881
2/19
1882
2/20
1883-1884
2/21
1885-1888
2/22
1889
2/23
1890
2/24
1891-1893

Series 3:  Subject files, 1860-1893Return to Top

Reports, notes, letters, printed materials and other original documents pertaining to specific subjects in Doane's life as identified by Merrill G. Burlingame in preparation for a biographical work. In general the documents in this series pertain specifically to the subject at hand, while those in series two could be interpreted to relate to several topics. Correspondents include John Gibbon, Doane's collaborator in the development of the Centennial Tent. Printed items gathered at the end of the series pertain to the Second U.S. Cavalry, the Howgate polar expedition, and general topics regarding the Indian wars and the frontier military. Oversize items have been removed from their appropriate files and stored elsewhere. The items have been replaced by separation notices within the files which have been indicated with an asterisk.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
3/1
Biographical-obituaries
3/2
University of the Pacific--printed items
1860-1861
3/3
University of the Pacific--student orations
1860-1861
3/4
University of the Pacific--student essays
1860-1861
3/5
Civil War service documents*
1862-1887
3/6
Postwar commissions, appointments, certificates*
1868-1887
3/7
Judith Basin survey
1873-1874
3/8
Campaign report
1876
3/9
Snake River expedition
orders, affidavits
1876-1877
3/10
Snake River expedition
report pp. 1-70
1876-1877
3/11
Snake River expedition
report pp. 71-122
1876-1877
3/12
Nez Pearce War
reports, affidavits
1877
3/13
Property shortages
1877-1886
3/14
Howgate polar expedition*
1880-1884
3/15
Yellowstone National Park superintendent petitions
3/16
Doane Centennial Tent--patent
3/17
Doane Centennial Tent--documents
1876-1891
3/18
Doane Centennial Tent, artillery endorsements
3/19
Doane Centennial Tent, cavalry endorsements
3/20
Doane Centennial Tent, infantry endorsements, 1-15th regiments
3/21
Doane Centennial Tent, infantry endorsements, 16-25th regiments
3/22
Printed items
1867-1889
3/23
Printed items*
1903-1911
3/24
Newspaper clippings
1929-1935
3/25
Liberty Magazine
1934

Series 4:  Receipt and letter books, 1881-1891Return to Top

Originally letter books which Doane kept to track his own correspondence, but later adapted for the filing of receipts and return letters. Doane pasted the material within the volumes without maintaining any apparent order, and the inclusive dates of any of the four volumes are an estimate. Many of the letters pasted into the 1886-1891 book pertain to Doane's attempts to gain the superintendency of Yellowstone National Park.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
4/1
Letter and receipt book
1877-1887
4/2
Letter and receipt book
1881-1886
4/3
Letter and receipt book
1886-1891
Box
5
Letter and receipt book
1883-1886

Series 5:  Burlingame research notes, circa 1930sReturn to Top

Typed and handwritten research notes and transcriptions of original primary and secondary sources, both from this collection and those held elsewhere, prepared by Merrill G. Burlingame while preparing a biography of Gustavus C. Doane. The material has been gathered in subject files which repeat an supplement those found in series 3.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
6/1
Research correspondence
1934-1939
6/2
Biographical-obituaries
6/3
Doane correspondence notes and transcripts
6/4
"Republican Speech to the Working Men of the South"
6/5
Yellowstone exploration
6/6
African exploration
6/7
Judith Basin survey
1873-1874
6/8
Snake River expedition
1876-1877
6/9
Campaign report
1876
6/10
Nez Pearce War
1877
6/11
Hailstorm report
1878
6/12
Howgate polar expedition
6/13
Montana military posts
6/14
Yellowstone National Park superintendent

Series 6:  Photographs, circa 1870-1880sReturn to Top

Two copy photographs of Gustavus C. Doane portraits from unidentified originals. The first photograph shows Doane close to the beginning of his postwar career, the second was obviously taken towards the end of his life.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
6/15
#1 and 2

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Apache Indians-Wars, 1883-1886
  • Dakota Indians-Wars, 1876
  • Explorers
  • Nez Percé Indians-Wars, 1877
  • Soldiers-United States
  • Tents
  • Personal Names :
  • Howgate, Henry W
  • Corporate Names :
  • Doane Centennial Tent Company
  • United States-Army-Cavalry, 2nd
  • United States-Army-Officers
  • Geographical Names :
  • Arctic regions-Discovery and exploration
  • Judith River Valley (Mont.)-Discovery and exploration
  • Rocky Mountains-Discovery and exploration
  • Snake River Valley (Wyo. and Wash.)-Discovery and exploration
  • Yellowstone National Park