Hartmann and Weinland Inuit Photographs, circa 1886  PDF

Overview of the Collection

Hartmann and Weinland
Hartmann and Weinland Inuit Photographs
circa 1886 (inclusive)
9 photographic prints (1 folder)
Collection Number
Photographs of Inuit and other Eskimo people, dwellings, and villages.
University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections
Special Collections
University of Washington Libraries
Box 352900
Seattle, WA
Telephone: 206-543-1929
Fax: 206-543-1931
Access Restrictions

The collection is open to the public.

Funding for encoding this finding aid was partially provided through a grant awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Historical NoteReturn to Top

In 1884, the Reverends J. Adolphus Hartmann and William H. Weinland set off from San Francisco; they had been commissioned by the Moravian Church in America to determine a location for a mission in Western Alaska. The mission site they chose, called Bethel, was on the Kuskokwim River. Upon their return to San Francisco, the Moravian church raised funds to send representatives to the mission; among them was Reverend Weinland, who became the teacher of the government school.

Historical BackgroundReturn to Top

Photographs made by Hartmann and Weinland are featured in "Education in Alaska," a report written by Sheldon Jackson, general agent of education in Alaska from Sitka, Alaska, on February 1, 1886. The report contained Jackson's opinions on the specific needs and challenges of establishing a public education system in Alaska, from geographic and climatic challenges to detailed descriptions of the native populations. "The education demanded in Alaska is the moral, intellectual, and physical training of the people at one and the same time -- the gradual uplifting of the whole man.... The training of the schools should be extended to the heart as well as the mind and hand."

Jackson's vision of an education system was based on Christian principles; the establishment of English schools followed the creation of missionary centers and churches. The curriculum included basic skills such as reading, writing, and arithmetic, but also featured sanitary regulations, laws of health, better methods of housekeeping, and virtues such as honesty and chastity. "From these reports it will be seen that earnest efforts are being made to educate and civilize the natives; that school attendance is obligatory, and 98 percent of the children of the school age are reported in attendance."

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

The collection consists of nine photographs, ca. 1886, of locations in Unalaska, Kuskokwim Bay, and Nushagak. Inuit and other Eskimo men and boys appear in the photographs; also depicted are dwellings, warehouses, kayaks, and dog sleds. The "old Russian fort" at Kolmakovsky is also pictured.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top

Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top


The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

Container(s) Description Dates
1  Buildings in village
Caption: "7. Ounalaska--Our Quarters."
ca. 1886
2  Buildings in village
Caption: "12. Nushagak.--Looking South."
ca. 1886
3  Men and boys
Caption: "14. Group of Esquimaux Men and Boys."
ca. 1886
4  Men and buildings
Caption: "17. Ware-House, Kuskokwim Bay."
ca. 1886
5  People and dogs seated near kayaks, dog sleds, and other equipment
Caption: "18. Esquimaux Village, kiyack, dog sled, etc."
ca. 1886
6  Man in front of wall
Caption: "26. Male Esquimaux showing clotted hair."
ca. 1886
7  Dogs in fort complex
Caption: "27. Kolmakovsky, showing old Russian fort."
ca. 1886
8  Man seated and wrapped in blanket
Caption: "32. Favorite position when at leisure."
ca. 1886
9  Man leaning against earthen wall or bank
Caption: "35. Esquimaux leaning against a Kashima."
ca. 1886

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Eskimos--Alaska--Photographs
  • Eskimos--Dwellings--Alaska--Photographs
  • Inuit--Alaska--Photographs
  • Villages--Alaska--Photographs
  • Visual Materials Collections (University of Washington)
  • Geographical Names :
  • Kuskokwim Bay (Alaska)--Photographs
  • Nushagak (Alaska)--Photographs
  • Unalaska (Alaska)--Photographs
  • Form or Genre Terms :
  • Photographic prints