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Luther Cressman papers, 1930-1990

Overview of the Collection

Creator
Cressman, Luther S., 1897-1994
Title
Luther Cressman papers
Dates
1930-1990 (inclusive)
Quantity
12.5 linear feet, (27 containers)
Collection Number
UA 005
Summary
Collection includes personal papers, professional papers, publications, field notes, slides and negatives, and reel-to-reel films relating to the career of Luther Cressman (1897-1994), an anthropologist and University of Oregon professor who focused on prehistoric man in Oregon.
Repository
University of Oregon Libraries, Special Collections and University Archives.
UO Libraries--SPC, 1299
University of Oregon
Eugene OR
97403-1299
Telephone: 541-346-3068
Fax: 541-346-3485
spcarref@uoregon.edu
Access Restrictions

Collection is open to the public.

Collection must be used in Special Collections & University Archives Reading Room.

Collection or parts of collection may be stored offsite. Please contact Special Collections & University Archives in advance of your visit to allow for transportation time.

Permanent University Archive public records are available for research, and are subject to state, and in some cases federal freedom of information laws. In compliance with applicable state and federal laws, including, but not limited to, FERPA and HIPAA, specific records that are legally protected, sensitive, private, or confidential are exempt (not subject to disclosure) and closed to protect individual privacy.

Access to paper records will be granted after a professional review of the records occurs based on regulations in state and federal laws. Contact Special Collections & University Archives well in advance in order to access these records.

Languages
English


Historical NoteReturn to Top

Luther Sheeleigh Cressman was born on October 24, 1897 outside of Pottstown, Pennsylvania. He began his education at Pennsylvania State University where he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1918 majoring in the Classics and minoring in English poetry. He later studied at Union Theological Seminary and Columbia University simultaneously. By 1925 he had been ordained an Episcopalian priest, received his Ph.D. in Sociology with a minor in Anthropology and had married Margaret Mead. In 1927 Margaret Mead met another man and asked for a divorce. The following year he married his life-long wife Dorothy Loch. In 1927 Cressman renounced the ministry and in 1929 took a position as Professor of Sociology at the University of Oregon. Six years later his anthropological research became extensive enough to found the Department of Anthropology. Luther Cressman remained chair of the department from 1935 to his retirement in 1963.

Luther Cressman is known for many accomplishments throughout his career. He helped to organize the University of Oregon’s Museum of Natural History and was the founding director of the Oregon State Museum of Anthropology. He is most known for his discovery of the sagebrush bark sandals at Fort Rock in 1938. The sandals were radiocarbon dated from 10,500 to 9,300 years old. In 1950 he founded the Oregon Coast Prehistory Program based on his interest in the prehistoric man and his migrations through Oregon and the Pacific Northwest. Cressman’s major publications include A Golden Journey, Klamath Prehistory, and Prehistory of the Far West. Among his other numerous accomplishments were a Guggenheim Fellowship, the John Alsop King Fellowship, and the Charles E. Johnson Memorial Award. He continued to be active in his writing and research until his death in 1994.

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

The Luther Cressman Papers, which span the years 1930-1990, consist of papers, field journals, publications, negatives, and photographs all relating to his work as an anthropologist. The collection documents his years as a professor at the University of Oregon, his involvement with other organizations, and his work after retirement. Many documents in the collection pertain to his research at Fort Rock where he discovered the sagebrush sandals considered to be the oldest known sandals in the world. The material from this research includes correspondence, publications, field notes and slides and photographs. The collection is organized into six series: personal papers, professional papers, publications, field notes, negatives and photographs, and index citation cards.

The Personal Papers series is arranged into two subseries: correspondence and Margaret Mead. The correspondence is arranged alphabetically by general subject and contains incoming and outgoing letters. Researchers will be particularly interested in the Margaret Mead papers, which include media surrounding the controversy over her research in Samoa and an editorial Cressman presented in response.

The Professional Papers series is arranged into seven subseries: correspondence, Fort Rock, John Day Association, National Science Foundation, University of Oregon papers, general papers, and reference articles. The correspondence is organized into two parts, the first alphabetically by name and the second part is general correspondence arranged chronologically. The Fort Rock Cave subseries is especially interesting as this is where Cressman discovered the 9,000 year-old sandals.

The Films series contains five reel-to-reel films: three films documenting Cressman's field work, and two copies of the film, A Search for Vanished People.

The Publication series is arranged into six subseries: A Golden Journey, Klamath Prehistory, Prehistory of the Far West, minor publications, speeches, and publications about Cressman. The first three contain correspondence about publication and working and final drafts of the manuscripts. The publications about Cressman contain newspaper articles written about Luther Cressman.

The Field Notes series is arranged chronologically and contains expense books, notebooks, and loose papers from his field research. The Catlow Caves field book from 1937 has extensive research information regarding his excavations.

The Negatives and Photographs series is arranged into four subseries: negatives and photograph keys, mixed media, negatives, and photographs. The negatives are organized into three different categories: roman numeral, numbered, and general. These are especially interesting and relevant to his fieldwork. The index cards in boxes 17 and 18 provide information about the first two categories of negatives. The other negatives lack descriptions and are labeled as general. They are ordered numerically by a system used before the negatives were donated. The mixed media contains a film showing Luther Cressman’s memorial service and audiotapes.

The Index Citation Cards series is arranged first by author and then by state. These cards contain information about reference articles and research locations.

Use of the CollectionReturn to Top

Restrictions on Use

Property rights reside with Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries. Copyright resides with the creators of the documents or their heirs. All requests for permission to publish collection materials must be submitted to Special Collections & University Archives. The reader must also obtain permission of the copyright holder.

Archival material may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal and/or state right to privacy laws and other regulations.

Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g. a cause of action for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the University of Oregon assumes no responsibility.

If a researcher finds sensitive personal information in a collection, please bring it to the attention of the reading room staff.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Luther Cressman Papers, UA 005, Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries, Eugene, Oregon.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top

Series I:  Personal papersReturn to Top

Container(s) Description
Subseries A: Correspondence
Box Folder
1 1
Cougill and Hansen
1 2
Financial
1 3
Former Students
1 4
General Personal correspondence
1 5
General Personal correspondence
1 6
Legaux, Peter, Biography of
1 7
Legaux, Peter, Will of
1 8
McNary, Charles L.
1 9
Morse, Wayne
1 10
Opinion
1 11
Renunciation of Ministry
1 12
Retirement Sentiments
1 13
Sheeleigh, Dr. M.
1 14
Solicitations
1 15
Urban League of Portland
26 1
Correspondence [Confidential]
Subseries B: Margaret Mead
Box Folder
1 16
Dick Clark Film Productions, Inc.
1 17
Mabee, Carleton
1 18
Eda Lou
1 19
Mead Editorial
1 20
Media Surrounding Mead Controversy
1 21
Responses to Luther Cressman’s Mead Editorial

Series II:  Professional papersReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Subseries A: Correspondence
Box Folder
2 1
Ackerman, Robert E.
2 2
Allison, Ira S.
2 3
Association of Indian Affairs
2 4
Borden, Charles E.
2 5
Chemawa Indian School
2 6
Condon Lectureships
2 7
Daugherty, Richard D.
2 8
Fryxell, Roald
2 9
Greengo, Robert
2 10
Gruhn, Ruth
2 11
Gugenheim Fellowship
2 12
Hammond, Peter
2 13
Haynes, C. Vance
2 14
Hubbs, Carl L.
2 15
Indian Claims Commission
2 16
Kidd, R.S.
2 17
Kigoshi, Kunihiko
2 18
Klamath Withdrawal Bill
2 19
MacDonald, George
2 20
Moriarty, James
2 21
Mount Mazama
2 22
Mount Mazama
2 23
“Natives” – A Central Independent Television Production (photos)
2 24
Post, Austin
2 25
Research Related correspondence
2 26
Riddel, Francis
2 27
Sanger, David
2 28
Sanger, David
3 1
Sargent, S.C.
3 2
Shutler, Richard
3 3
Swanson, Earl H.
3 4
Wilmeth, Roscoe
3 5
General correspondence
1937-1939
3 6
General correspondence
1940
3 7
General correspondence
1941-1954
3 8
General correspondence
1955
3 9
General correspondence
1955
3 10
General correspondence
1956
3 11
General correspondence
1956
3 12
General correspondence
1957
3 13
General correspondence
1957
3 14
General correspondence
1958
3 15
General correspondence
1959
3 16
General correspondence
1960
3 17
General correspondence
1961
3 18
General correspondence
1962
26 2
University of Oregon miscellaneous [Confidential]
4 1
General correspondence
1963
4 2
General correspondence
1963
4 3
General correspondence
1964
4 4
General correspondence
1964
4 5
General correspondence
1965-1969
4 6
General Publication correspondence
4 7
General Publication correspondence
Subseries B: Fort Rock
Box Folder
4 8
Fort Rock correspondence
4 9
Fort Rock Cave, Geologic Stratigraphy of
4 10
Fort Rock Identifications correspondence
4 11
Fort Rock Cave Permit to Excavate
4 12
Fort Rock Cave Project Proposal
4 13
Fort Rock, Summer Lake/Silver Lake Field Report
Subseries C: John Day Association
Box Folder
4 14
John Day Association correspondence
1943-1946
4 15
John Day Catalogue of Specimens and Reports
4 16
John Day Manuscripts
Subseries D: National Science Foundation
Box Folder
5 1
Academy Research Council – NSF Fellowship Panel
5 2
National Science Foundation General Correspondence>
5 3
National Science Foundation – GS-432
5 4
National Science Foundation – GS-432
5 5
National Science Foundation – GS-432
5 6
National Science Foundation – GS-432
Subseries E: University of Oregon papers
Box Folder
5 7
Award Ceremony Programs
5 8
Committee of Fifteen
1955-1959
5 9
Committee of Fifteen
1960
5 10
Faculty Record
26 3
Atherton, John: Dissertation Committee [Confidential]
26 4
Bedwell. S. F. : Dissertation Committee [Confidential]
26 5
Fagan, John: Dissertation Committee [Confidential]
26 6
Fagan, John: Recommendation and NSF Grant Information [Confidential]
26 7
Morratto, Michael: Dissertation Committee [Confidential]
26 8
Baldinger, Wallace: Evaluation [Confidential]
Subseries F: General papers
Box Folder
5 11
Guggenheim Fellow Report
5 12
Application for Teaching Appointment, Columbia University
5 13
Work journal
5 14
Professional Biographical Sketch
5 15
University of Washington papers
5 16
Miscellaneous papers
Subseries G: Reference Articles, alphabetical by author
Box Folder
6 1
Allison-Armstrong
6 2
Arnold-Boas
6 3
Borden-Byrne
6 4
Carter-Chard
6 5
Colinvaux-Davis
6 6
Diebold-Farrand
6 7
Flint-Fryxell
6 8
Goss-Greengo
6 9
Griffin-Harry
6 10
Haynes
6 11
Heizer-Hopkins
6 12
Husle-Karlstrom
6 13
Kidd
7 1
Kittleman-Laughlin
7 2
Lawrence-Michaels
7 3
Miller-Mitchell
7 4
Moriarty-Mullineaux
7 5
Mulloy-Orr
7 6
Osborne-Rouse
7 7
Romney-Suttles
7 8
Swadesh
7 9
Terasmae-Wallace
7 10
Warren-Wormington
7 11
Subject Files A-K
7 12
Subject Files L-O
7 13
Subject Files P-Q
7 14
Subject Files R-Z

Series III:  FilmsReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Box
27
Field Work LSC I, Reel 1 of 3
1.0 reel to reel
Fieldwork footage of Eastern Oregon caves.
c. 1939
27
Field Work LSC II, Reel 2 of 3
1.0 reel to reel
Fieldwork footage of Eastern Oregon caves.
c. 1939
27
Field Work LSC III, Reel 3 of 3
1.0 reel to reel
Fieldwork footage of Eastern Oregon caves.
c. 1939
27
A Search for Vanished People (2 copies)
2.0 reel to reel
n.d.

Series IV:  PublicationsReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Subseries A: A Golden Journey
Box Folder
8 1
A Golden Journey correspondence
8 2
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 3
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 4
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 5
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 6
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 7
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 8
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 9
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 10
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 11
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 12
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 13
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
8 14
A Golden Journey Working Manuscript
9 1
A Golden Journey Part I
9 2
A Golden Journey Part I
9 3
A Golden Journey Part I
9 4
A Golden Journey Part I
9 5
A Golden Journey Part II
9 6
A Golden Journey Part III
9 7
A Golden Journey Part IV
9 8
A Golden Journey Part IV
9 9
A Golden Journey Part IV
9 10
A Golden Journey Part IV
9 11
A Golden Journey Part IV
9 12
A Golden Journey Part V
Subseries B: Klamath Prehistory
Box Folder
10 1
Klamath Prehistory correspondence
1955-1960
10 2
Klamath Prehistory correspondence
1955-1960
10 3
Klamath Prehistory correspondence
1955-1960
10 4
Klamath Prehistory Draft 1
10 5
Klamath Prehistory Draft 1
10 6
Klamath Prehistory Draft 1
10 7
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 1
10 8
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 2
10 9
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 3
10 10
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 4
10 11
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 4
10 12
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 4
10 13
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 5
10 14
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 5
10 15
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 5
10 16
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 5
11 1
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 6
11 2
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 6
11 3
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 7
11 4
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 7
11 5
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 7
11 6
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 7
11 7
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Chapter 8
11 8
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Bibliography
11 9
Klamath Prehistory Working Manuscript Bibliography
11 10
Klamath Prehistory Manuscript
11 11
Klamath Prehistory Manuscript
11 12
Klamath Prehistory Manuscript
11 13
Klamath Prehistory Manuscript
11 14
Klamath Prehistory Manuscript
11 15
Klamath Prehistory Manuscript
11 16
Klamath Prehistory Maps and Charts
Subseries C: Prehistory of the Far West
Box Folder
12 1
Prehistory of the Far West: correspondence
12 2
Prehistory of the Far West: Bibliography
12 3
Prehistory of the Far West: Book Reviews
12 4
Prehistory of the Far West: Copyright Permission Inquiries
12 5
Prehistory of the Far West: Manuscript Revisions
12 6
Prehistory of the Far West: Suggested Revisions
12 7
Prehistory of the Far West: Manuscript Report
12 8
Prehistory of the Far West: Personal Expenses
12 9
Prehistory of the Far West: Photograph Requests
12 10
Prehistory of the Far West: Publications Inquiries
Subseries D: Minor Publications
Box Folder
12 11
Bibliography of Luther Cressman’s Writing
12 12
Archaeological Researches in the Northern Great Basin: correspondence
12 13
Archaeological Researches in the Northern Great Basin: correspondence
12 14
Archaeological Researches in the Northern Great Basin: correspondence
12 15
Crater Lake and Early Man in Oregon: correspondence
12 16
Crater Lake and Early Man in Oregon: Manuscript
12 17
Cultural Sequence of the Dalles : correspondence
12 18
Cultural Sequence of the Dalles : correspondence
12 19
“The Earliest Oregonians”
12 20
“Man in the New World”
12 21
The Great Basin Plateau Revisited
13 1
“Intermontane-Pacific Coast Prehistoric Cultural Relations”
13 2
Man in Association with Extinct Fauna in the Great Basin: Abstract and correspondence
13 3
“The Northern Great Basin” Abstract
13 4
Salt Caves and Dam Reservoir Interim Report
1961
13 5
Report to the Smithsonian
1967
13 6
Report to the Smithsonian
1968
13 7
Report to the Smithsonian
1968
Subseries E: Speeches
Box Folder
13 8
Archaeology of the Dalles, Oregon
1955
13 9
Fort Rock Cave: National Historical Landmark Dedication
1963
13 10
Hail and Farewell
1946
13 11
Hail and Farewell
1979
13 12
History of Anthropology – University of Oregon
1963
13 13
The Northern Great Basin
1954
13 14
Origin of the American Indians
1965
13 15
Volcanic Ash Deposits as Archaeological Horizon Markers
1966
13 16
A Swan Song: Toward the Composition of the New World Epic
1990
13 17
Science Seminar Series
13 18
Santa Rosa Island Conference
13 19
Great Basin Anthropology Conference
1966
Subseries F: Publications about Cressman
Box Folder
13 20
Newspaper Clippings Scrapbook
14 1
Newspaper Clipping originals
14 2
Newspaper Clipping originals
14 3
Retirement articles
14 4
Copies of Newspaper Articles
1930-1950
14 5
Copies of Newspaper Articles
1930-1950
14 6
Copies of Newspaper Articles
1980-1990
Series IV: Field Notes
Box Folder
15 1
Field Notes
1930
15 2
Field Notes
1932
15 3
Field Notes
1933
15 4
East Oregon Field Trip
1934
15 5
Field Notes
1934, 1935, 1937
15 6
Catlow Cave Notes
1937
15 7
Field Notes
1938
15 8
Field Notes
1938
15 9
Field Notes
1938
16 1
Field Notes
1938
16 2
Field Notes
1939
16 3
Field Notes
1940
16 4
Field Notes
1941, 1944, 1945
16 5
Field Notes
1941, 1944, 1945
16 6
Cressman’s House Pits: Notes and General
1947
16 7
Field Notes
1948
17 1
Field Notes
1949
17 2
Field Trip
1949
17 3
Field Notes
1950
17 4
Field Notes
1951
17 5
Klamath
1951
17 6
CS Bandon
1952
17 7
Field Notes
1952
17 8
Field Notes
1952
18 1
Field Notes
1953
18 2
WS-4
1953
18 3
WS-4
1954
18 4
Field Notes
1954
18 5
Field Notes
1960

Series V:  Negatives and photographsReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Subseries A: Negatives and Photograph Keys
Box Folder
18 6
Negative Files and Maps
18 7
Index Cards by Roman Numeral
18 8
Index Cards by Number 1-59
18 9
Index Cards by Number 60-119
18 10
Index Cards by Number 120-179
19 1
Index Cards by Number 180-239
19 2
Index Cards by Number 240-299
19 3
Index Cards by Number 300-359
19 4
Index Cards by Number 360-370
19 5
Film: Luther Cressman Memorial Service
19 6
Audio Tape: Coopersburg, Pennsylvania A-B
1988
19 7
Audio Tape: Coopersburg, Pennsylvania C-D
1988
Subseries C: Negatives
Box
20
General – N1-N21
20
General - N22-N28
20
General – N29-N52
20
Roman Numerals
21
Numbered Transparencies
21
Numbered Transparencies
21
Feature Transparencies
Subseries D: Photographs
Box
22
General – P1-P21, Negative 52DD

Series VI:  Index Citation CardsReturn to Top

Container(s) Description
Subseries A: By Author
Box Folder
23 1
General
23 2
Index Cards – A
23 3
Index Cards – B
23 4
Index Cards – B
23 5
Index Cards – B
23 6
Index Cards – C
23 7
Index Cards – C
23 8
Index Cards – D
23 9
Index Cards – E-F
23 10
Index Cards – G
23 11
Index Cards – H
23 12
Index Cards – H
23 13
Index Cards – I-J
24 1
Index Cards – K
24 2
Index Cards – L
24 3
Index Cards – M
24 4
Index Cards – N-O
24 5
Index Cards – P-Q
24 6
Index Cards – R
24 7
Index Cards – S
24 8
Index Cards – S
24 9
Index Cards – T-V
24 10
Index Cards – W-Z
Subseries B: By State
Box Folder
25 1
A-B
25 2
C
25 3
C
25 4
C
25 5
D-I
25 6
K-N
25 7
O
25 8
P-V
25 9
W-Z