Elizabeth Bayley Willis Northeast India photograph collection, circa 1954  PDF

Overview of the Collection

Collector
Willis, Elizabeth Bayley
Title
Elizabeth Bayley Willis Northeast India photograph collection
Dates
circa 1954 (inclusive)
Quantity
310 photographic prints (1 box) ; 4 x 5 inches
100 copy negatives (1 box) ; 4x5 inches
Collection Number
PH0690
Summary
Photographs collected by Elizabeth Bayley Willis taken by Verrier Elwin and Panna Pal in northeast India in the 1950s documenting various landscapes and ethnic groups
Repository
University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections
Special Collections
University of Washington Libraries
Box 352900
Seattle, WA
98195-2900
Telephone: 206-543-1929
Fax: 206-543-1931
speccoll@uw.edu
Access Restrictions

Collection is open to the public.

Additional Reference Guides

Languages
English


Biographical NoteReturn to Top

Elizabeth Bayley Willis was born Elizabeth Palmer Bayley in Somerville, Massachusetts, in 1902. She attended Queen Anne High School and spent a year in Boston and West Newton, Massachusetts, at the Misses Allen School. In Boston Willis studied European art history and the Asian collections at the Boston Museum. Willis spent one year of college at Mount Holyoke, continuing to visit Boston and study at the museum. She graduated from the University of Washington in 1923. Willis married Cecil Durand Willis in 1923, and the couple had four daughters before their divorce in 1937.

In 1937 Willis studied painting at Mills College summer session with artists Lyonel Feininger, Helen Chapin, and others. There she met Kenneth Callahan, who brought her into Seattle's art world. Through Callahan she met Morris Graves, Mark Tobey, and other Northwest artists, and she studied painting with Tobey in 1939 and 1940. From 1938 to 1943, Willis taught English and Latin at Garfield High School in Seattle and headed the school's art department.

In 1943 Willis went to New York looking for a gallery to show Mark Tobey's work. She was hired by Marian Willard to show Morris Graves's work at the Willard Gallery, and in 1947 she returned to Seattle to work as curator at the University of Washington's Henry Art Gallery. From 1948 to 1950, Willis was curator at the San Francisco Museum of Art and from 1950 to 1951, curator and acting assistant director of the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. In charge of exhibits, Willis curated Mark Tobey's first retrospective exhibit and was instrumental in bringing to the United States a series of exhibitions of the decorative arts of Japan, China, and Korea.

While in San Francisco, Willis had helped to show and sell Japanese folk art for Dr. Suetsu Yanagi of the Mingei Kan National Folk Art Museum in Tokyo. In 1951 she went to Japan as a consultant to the Mingei Kan on the quality and marketing of modern folk art. She made her first visit to India on her return trip and collected folk textiles in Bombay. Back in the United States, Willis went to New York to study the Cooper-Union museum's Indian decorative arts collection. On the weekends she went to Boston to study with Georg Swarenski, curator of decorative arts at the Boston Museum.

In 1952 Willis was appointed to the United Nations Technical Assistance Board, having been recommended by the Cooper-Union Museum as a curator and marketer of handcrafts. Her work for the UN focused on stimulating the economic development of handcrafts in India and East Asia through marketing textile and other decorative art products to American and European importers. In November of that year, Willis went to India as an advisor to the government of Uttar Pradesh on the development and preservation of handcrafts.

Willis worked with the All India Handcrafts Board, the Handloom Board, and the Khadi and Village Industries Board to improve and develop crafts production and sales, and in so doing improve the living and working conditions of the craftspeople. Working in Uttar Pradesh, Willis observed many one of a kind techniques and designs in textile creation and helped the local artisans to develop consistent production for export. Willis returned to India several times as a gazetted advisor to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the Textile Commissioner, and the All India Handloom Board. Her primary role was to help develop the export business for handloom textiles for all of India, a task that involved visiting hundreds of villages throughout the country, establishing guidelines for quality control, and assisting with technical improvements. Willis also worked on similar missions for the UN in Vietnam, Formosa, and Morocco.

From 1957 to 1965, Willis returned to India many times at her own expense to collect textiles and continue her study of the folk textile industry. Over 1,400 textiles as well as jewelry from Willis's collection were donated to the University of Washington by Willis and her friends Virginia and Prentice Bloedel, who helped to fund several of Willis's later trips to India. This gift started the University's Costume and Textile Study Center, now part of the Henry Art Gallery. Other Willis textiles, artifacts, photographs, and unpublished research are in the National Anthropological Archives and the Cooper-Hewitt Museum.

Willis resided in Bainbridge Island near Seattle for many years and died at the age of 101 in 2003.

Historical BackgroundReturn to Top

In the late 1950s, Elizabeth Bayley Willis wanted to travel to the Northeast Frontier Agency (now Arunachal Pradesh). She discussed this in letters to Verrier Elwin (1902-1964) who was a leading expert on the NEFA and an advisor to the government of India. He invited her to visit him in Assam but made it clear that the NEFA was off limits. With a grant from the University of Washington, she traveled to India and met Verrier Elwin in 1959. She collected photographs that Verrier Elwin and Panna Pal had taken in the NEFA, Nagaland, and other parts of northeast India.

Northeast India is an upside-down triangle of seven states (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, and Assam) that is east of Bangladesh, south of Tibet, and west of Myanmar. It is connected to the bulk of India by a small strip of land in West Bengal. Arunachal Pradesh (formerly the Northeast Frontier Agency) did not become a state until 1987. Much of Arunachal Pradesh is disputed territory that is governed by India but claimed by the Chinese who call it South Tibet. Northeast India has close cultural ties to Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. In the 1950s, it was home to tribal people who wore little or no clothing, modified their bodies with tattoos and piercings, sacrificed animals, decapitated enemies, owned slaves, and had sex with multiple partners. To much of the western world, these tribal people were exotic, primitive, and controversial. Their cultural traditions were recorded by Verrier Elwin and the few other scholars who were allowed to meet them.

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

Collection contains photographs collected by Elizabeth Bayley Willis, taken by Verrier Elwin and Panna Pal in northeast India in the 1950s documenting various landscapes and ethnic groups. Collection consists of copy prints made by the University of Washington Audio-Visual Production Services from negatives made by IMS. Originals held elsewhere.

Other Descriptive InformationReturn to Top

Catalog data from the Smithsonian's Elizabeth Bayley Willis Photographs 1950s-1960s (Photo lot 79-11, Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives) were used in the preparation of this finding aid. The Elizabeth Bayley Willis Papers 1933-1988 (Manuscripts Accession no. 2583-019) contain correspondence between Elizabeth Bayley Willis and Verrier Elwin.

Use of the CollectionReturn to Top

Alternative Forms Available

View selections from the collection in digital format .

Restrictions on Use

Restrictions may exist on reproduction, quotation, or publication. Contact Special Collections, University of Washington Libraries for details.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top

 

Northeast Frontier Agency (NEFA) portion of Assam now Arunachal Pradesh (Arunachal State)Return to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Undetermined division or district
Landscape
item
1
Zula La (Zula Pass)
circa 1954
Kameng Frontier Division now Tawang District, West Kameng District, and East Kameng District
Landscape
item
2
View of Karpo La (Karpo Pass) from Bum La (Bum Pass) with two Buddhist cairns in foreground
circa 1954
3
Sub-tropical forest and conifer-covered mountains
circa 1954
4
Zong La (Zong Pass) near Tawang looking toward Nyamjangchu
circa 1954
5
Khong La (Khong Pass) with Buddhist cairns
circa 1954
6
Mt. Khenzamane
circa 1954
7
View of Senge Dzong on way to Se La (Se Pass) with rhododendrons in foreground
circa 1954
8
View of Seng Dzong on way to Se La (Se Pass)
circa 1954
9
Se La (Se Pass) Lake towards Tawang
circa 1954
10-11
Se La (Se Pass)
circa 1954
12
Dahung River between Dahung and Senchong
circa 1954
13
PT Tso Lake?
circa 1954
Multiple or undetermined ethnic groups
item
14
Two Akha girls dancing, two Miji girls dancing, and two Akha men playing drum and cymbals, Jamiri Village
circa 1954
15
Monpa with headdresses and Akha without headdresses dancing at coed school
circa 1954
16 circa 1954
Akha or Aka ethnic group
item
17
Akha longhouse with tied poles in front representing number of mithun (bos frontalis) sacrificed, Buragaon Village
circa 1954
18
Akha boy with knife, sword, bamboo hat, and braided bamboo bow guard on left wrist, Buragaon Village
circa 1954
19
Akha headman, Buragaon Village (20 with different crop)
circa 1954
20
Akha headman, Buragaon Village (19 with different crop)
circa 1954
21
Akha rani (female ruler of village) with tattoo, Lingchong (black pine resin) face paint, silver earplugs, and Tibetan ornaments standing next to husband with Tibetan felt hat and Tibetan sword, Jamiri Village
circa 1954
22 circa 1954
23
Akha women with silver earplugs and face paint pounding and winnowing rice, Jamiri Village
circa 1954
24
Akha brass earring, Jamiri Village
circa 1954
25
Tibetan sword owned by Akha, Jamiri Village
circa 1954
26
Village council members, Jamiri Village
circa 1954
27
Hut in jhum (slash and burn) field to protect field from animals and provide shelter for workers near Jamiri Village
circa 1954
28
Akha boy wearing lingchong (black pine resin) face paint on lips and bamboo bow guard on left wrist
circa 1954
29
Akha pole and thatch granary
circa 1954
30
Two Akha girls with ornaments
circa 1954
31
Akha woman from the back showing hairstyle and necklaces
circa 1954
32
Akha warrior with silver headdress, bear-skin shield, Akha sword, Tibetan Sword, and lingchong (black pine resin) face paint on cheeks
circa 1954
33
Akha necklace of sacred Tibetan stones worn by men and women
circa 1954
34
Ghanta (Tibetan ritual bell) used by Akha as status symbol
circa 1954
35
Akha woman with face tattoos and silver earplugs
circa 1954
36
Akha buildings in village
circa 1954
37
Akha rani (female ruler of village) with husband and child, Husigaon
circa 1954
38 circa 1954
39
Akha woman with large hoop earrings, Husigaon
circa 1954
Miji ethnic group
item
40
Miji woman with face tattoo and silver earplugs
circa 1954
41
Miji girls with face tattoos and silver earplugs
circa 1954
42
Miji girl with silver earplugs
circa 1954
Khowa ethnic group
item
43
Khowa pole and mat house on piles
circa 1954
44
Khowa men with silver earplugs, Tibetan swords, and ornaments
circa 1954
45
Khowa girl with Tibetan ornaments
circa 1954
46
Khowa man with bamboo hat and Tibetan sword
circa 1954
47
Khowa girl suffering from trachoma (eye disease) with face tattoo and ornaments, Sinchong Village
circa 1954
Monpa ethnic group
item
48 circa 1954
49
Buddhist lama outside of dzong (fortified monastery) with prayer wheels and prayer flags, Tawang
circa 1954
50 circa 1954
51
Monpa Gelugpa (yellow sect) head lama of Tawang wearing gold robes and holding mala (prayer beads)
circa 1954
52
Monpa high lama of Monyul, Tawang
circa 1954
53
Monpa woman wearing chuba (Tibetan robe), wool apron, and Tibetan fur hat, Tawang
circa 1954
54 circa 1954
55
Monpa village with cultivated fields and Tibetan-style houses, Dirang Dzong Village
circa 1954
56
Upper-class Monpa woman wearing Tibetan ornaments and felt cap with yak-wool appendages, Dirang Dzong Village
circa 1954
57
Woman and child wearing felt caps with yak-wool appendages, Dirang Dzong Village
circa 1954
58
Monpa man wearing Tibetan hat and takin (budorcas taxicolor) robe, Lumla Village
circa 1954
59
Monpa man wearing felt cap with yak wool appendages
circa 1954
Sherdukpen ethnic group related to Monpa
item
60 circa 1954
61
Unmarried Sherdukpen woman hiding her face, Dirang Dzong Village
circa 1954
62
Sherdukpen woman wearing fabric with Bhutanese pattern and Tibetan ornaments and Sherdukpen man wearing Kalimpong hat and Khamba sword, Dirang Dzong Village
circa 1954
63
Married Sherdukpen woman with Bhutanese hairstyle, Jabrang Village
circa 1954
64
Sherdukpen girl with Bhutanese hairstyle, Jabrang Village
circa 1954
65
Sherdukpen village with Tibetan-style houses and prayer flags on poles, Rupa Village
circa 1954
66 circa 1954
67
Sherdukpen man wearing deer mask
circa 1954
68
Sherdukpen men and boys wearing costumes and mask for Ajilamu dance
circa 1954
69 circa 1954
Bangni ethnic group related to Nishi
item
70
Bangni women and infants with one woman braiding a cane anklet on another woman, Nagho Village
circa 1954
Subansiri Frontier Division now Upper Subansiri District and Lower Subansiri District
Bangni ethnic group related to Nishi
item
71
Bangni girls near Sepla or Sepa Village
circa 1954
Nishi ethnic group
item
72
Upper-class Nishi priest with podum (twisted bun) hairstyle wearing Tibetan ornaments and knife, Zoram Village
circa 1954
73
Lower-class Nishi man preparing cane in Apatani village, Hari Village
circa 1954
74
Nishi prisoner of Apatani with wood fetter on left ankle, Haja or Ziro Village
circa 1954
Apatani ethnic group
item
75
Apatani girl with nose plugs and tattoos carrying basket with tumpline, Ziro Village
circa 1954
76
Upper-class Apatani women with nose plugs and face tattoos on porch of bamboo and thatch house, Ziro Village
circa 1954
77
Apatani man with ahu-yari (red cane tail) and woman with rain shield, Ziro Village
circa 1954
78
Lower-class Apatani woman with nose plugs and face tattoo filling chunga (bamboo tubes) with water, Ziro Village
circa 1954
79
Lower-class Apatani woman with nose plugs and face tattoo weaving man’s shawl on back-strap loom, Ziro Village
circa 1954
80
Upper-class Apatani woman with nose plugs and face tattoos winnowing rice, Hari Village
circa 1954
81 circa 1954
82
Apatani woman with face tattoo, nose plugs, face tattoo, and lingchong (black pine resin) face paint on chin carrying cane basket with tumpline, Hari Village
circa 1954
83
Former Apatani slave with pottery, Michi Bambin or Michi Bamin Village
circa 1954
84
Apatani shaman or priest wearing special headdress preparing sacred water in basket prior to sacrifice, Nigin Village
circa 1954
85
Apatani shaman or priest saying mantras while in trance, Nigin Village
circa 1954
86
Apatani shaman or priest saying mantras and sprinkling sacred water on slaughtered pigs, Nigin Village
circa 1954
87
Apatani sacrificing mithun (bos frontalis), Nigin Village
circa 1954
88
Apatani shaman performing divination rite with fowl and eggs, Nigin Village
circa 1954
89
Apatani men catching and binding mithun (bos frontalis) for sacrifice
circa 1954
90 circa 1954
91
Apatani shaman or priest with deer teeth ornaments
circa 1954
Miri ethnic group
item
92 circa 1954
93
Miri women processing millet in bamboo house, Lomdak Village
circa 1954
94
Miri woman with cotton skirt, cane waistband, and cane breast band pounding rice with wood mortar and pestle in bamboo house, Lomdak Village
circa 1954
95
Miri hunter with bow, arrow, and mithun (bos frontalis) shield in tropical jungle, Lomdak Village
circa 1954
96
Miri woman and child with firewood in basket with tumpline and shredded cane, Lomdak Village
circa 1954
97
Yuging (structure of wood poles with bamboo) where dog will be sacrificed to wiyus (spirits), Lomdak Village
circa 1954
98
Miri husband and wife, Tamen Village
circa 1954
99
Daporijo Village
circa 1954
100
Miri men and boy with dao (knife) on new bridge over Subansiri River, Daporijo Village
circa 1954
101
Miri man with cane waistband, sword, and baldric (weapon strap) with amulet of boar teeth and jaw bone set with cowrie shells and button
circa 1954
Siang Frontier Division now West Siang District and East Siang District
Landscape
item
102
Mountains, Northern Siang
circa 1954
103
Cane bridge over Kumsing River between Sibum and Padu above Along
circa 1954
104
Vine and cane suspension bridge over Siken River to Bogu
circa 1954
105
Jhum (slash and burn) fields and Siang River between Kopu and Gelling near Tuting
circa 1954
Multiple or undetermined ethnic groups
item
106 circa 1954
Adi ethnic group
item
107
Adi shaman in red coat and Adi girls participating in Ponuing (Ballad) ceremony or Pondong (dance by girls) at Administration Headquarters, Along
circa 1954
108
Adi warrior basket with boar tusks
circa 1954
109
Adi cane helmet with bear fur and boar tusks
circa 1954
110
Adi thatch huts in grain field with clappers to frighten birds
circa 1954
Tagin Adi ethnic subgroup
item
111
Tagin boy with mithun (bos frontalis) vest, bamboo and mithun (bos frontalis) shield, cowrie belt, bamboo penis shield, cane arm shield, Tibetan hat, and Tibetan sword
circa 1954
112
Tagin man wearing Tibetan robe and hat with bear skin, Rigo (near Mechuka)
circa 1954
Gallong Adi ethnic subgroup
item
113
Gallong bamboo suspension bridge over stream between Koyu and Rotte
circa 1954
114
Gallong man with takin (budorcas taxicolor) coat and dao (knife) standing next to Gallong wife with white cotton skirt and Tibetan beads, Liromba Village
circa 1954
115
Gallong man wearing hat with great Indian hornbill (dichoceros bicornis) head, Koyu Village
circa 1954
116
Gallong multi-family thatch longhouse, Ledum Village
circa 1954
117
Gallong men building bamboo longhouse, Ledum Village
circa 1954
118
Gallong men constructing Apong (banana-leaf-lined basket for making beer) for festival, Balleck or Ballek Village
circa 1954
119
Gallong men and boys constructing bamboo structure over grave, Tene Village
circa 1954
120
Gallong warriors wearing takin (budorcas taxicolor) or mithun (bos frontalis) vests, amulets, swords, and cane hats with monkey fur, boar tusks, and great Indian hornbill (dichoceros bicornis) beaks
circa 1954
Ashing Adi ethnic subgroup
item
121
Young Ashing woman with pipe and Tibetan beads, Rapum Village
circa 1954
122
Young Ashing woman with cane waistbands and cane anklets, Rapum Village
circa 1954
123
Ashing girl weaving on back-strap loom, Bomdo Village
circa 1954
124
Ashing boy
circa 1954
Bokar Adi ethnic subgroup
item
125
Young Bokar man with bamboo hat, Manigaon Village
circa 1954
126
Bokar men with pipes, cane hats, and Tibetan swords, Manigaon Village
circa 1954
Bori Adi ethnic subgroup
item
127
Bori man with Tibetan ornaments, Taigaon Village
circa 1954
128
Bori man with monkey-fur hat, bark armor, Tibetan ornaments, and pipe
circa 1954
Pangi Adi ethnic subgroup
item
129
Pangi man with cane hat, deer-fur earrings, pipe, leather tobacco pouch, and dao (knife)
circa 1954
Karko Adi ethnic subgroup
item
130
Young Karko man with monkey-fur earrings and safety pin on necklace
circa 1954
Milang Adi ethnic subgroup
item
131
Milang ang (chief) with sword, scabbard, Tibetan ornaments, and cane helmet decorated with bear fur and boar tusks
circa 1954
132
Milang woman cooking with teapot and brass vessels in longhouse with drying rack above fire
circa 1954
Shimong Adi ethnic subgroup
item
133 circa 1954
Pasi Adi ethnic subgroup
item
134
Pasi man carrying bow and arrows tipped with poisonous aconite paste
circa 1954
135
Old Pasi man carrying firewood in basket with tumpline
circa 1954
Padam Adi ethnic subgroup
item
136
Young Padam woman husking rice with log mortar and pestle, Mirem Village
circa 1954
137
Young Padam woman with ornaments, Pasighat
circa 1954
138
Padam man with sword
circa 1954
139
Young Padam woman
circa 1954
140
Padam girl carrying infant on back with tumpline
circa 1954
Minyong Adi ethnic subgroup
item
141
Minyong man wearing leopard skin and headdress of black-barred-hornbill feathers holding bow and arrows, Rengin Village
circa 1954
142 circa 1954
143
Minyong woman spinning yarn and carrying baskets with tumplines, Yambang Village near Along
circa 1954
144
Young Minyong woman, Yambang Village near Along
circa 1954
145
Minyong woman winnowing grain with dog nearby
circa 1954
Pailibo Adi ethnic subgroup
item
146
Pailibo man with fishing gear including snares and traps
circa 1954
147
Pailibo warrior with sword, bow, bamboo quiver
circa 1954
Memba ethnic group
item
148 circa 1954
149
Two-story Memba Tibetan-style library fallen into decay, Gelling Village
circa 1954
150
Memba women filling chunga (bamboo tubes), Gelling Village
circa 1954
151
Memba lama, Tuting
circa 1954
Tibetan ethnic group
item
152
Young Tibetan woman from Lampu, Tibet
circa 1954
153
Tibetan girl from Lampu, Tibet
circa 1954
Khamba ethnic group
item
154
Images of Khamba masked clowns Arakacho and wife performing in ceremony, Yang Sang Chu Valley near Mankhota or Mangkota Village
circa 1954
Lohit Frontier Divistion now Dibang Valley District and Lohit District
Idu Mishmi ethnic subgroup
item
155
Idu woman wearing wool coat with Tibetan print and Tibetan Necklace
circa 1954
156
Idu man wearing wool coat with Tibetan print, Tibetan necklace, and takin (budorcas taxicolor) hat
circa 1954
157
Idu man lifting bamboo pole
circa 1954
158
Idu women with Tibetan ornaments (woman kneeling is the same as the woman in 159), Elopa Village
circa 1954
159
Idu woman with infant in sling (woman is the same as the woman kneeling in 158), Elopa Village
circa 1954
Digaru or Taraon Mishmi ethnic subgroup
item
160
Digaru priestess beating drum to invoke tutelary spirit before going into trance, Tezu Village
circa 1954
161
Digaru priestess beating drum prior to invoking spirits, Tezu Village
circa 1954
162
Digaru women winnowing grain, Badaro or Bodaro Village
circa 1954
163
Digaru woman with earplugs
circa 1954
164
Digaru priestess with opium pipe
circa 1954
165
Digaru man and woman, Dreye Village
circa 1954
Kaman Mishmi ethnic subgroup
item
166
Kaman woman with pipe, silver headband, coin necklace, metal neck rings, and Tibetan silver amulet to hold prayers, Bodard Village in Khamlang Valley
circa 1954
167
Kaman men, Khamlang or Dibang Valley
circa 1954
168
Kaman woman wearing earplugs and yunnan coin necklace, Walong
circa 1954
Khampti ethnic group
item
169
Khampti boy in Burmese-style costume striking gong, Chowkham Village
circa 1954
Tirap Frontier Division now Changlang District and Tirap District
Multiple or undetermined ethnic groups
item
170
Two Nocte men wearing plaid loincloths on left and two Tangsa men wearing white loincloths on right, Hoakam Village
circa 1954
171
Village with Nocte or Tangsa bamboo mat houses with thatch roofs
circa 1954
172
Wancho or Nocte bride with tattoos, beaded crown, great Indian hornbill (dichoceros bicornis) feathers, and skirt added just for photograph, Senua Village
circa 1954
Tangsa ethnic group
item
173
Tangsa man in Burmese style outfit with sword, Changlang Village
circa 1954
174
Officials and families in Changlang headquarters wearing white clothes to cover costumes and jhapi hats from Shan Burma (Myanmar), Changlang Village
circa 1954
175
Tangsa woman spinning with lakli (spindle), Changlang Village
circa 1954
176
Tangsa man with hair in topknot carrying gun, Changlang Village
circa 1954
177
Tangsa girl wearing silver bracelets and necklaces of coins and beads, Changlang Village
circa 1954
178
Tangsa grave effigy protected by thatch hut, Changlang Village
circa 1954
179
Tangsa man with hair in topknot, Changlang Village
circa 1954
180
Tangsa girl dancers and singers with gongs, Changlang Village
circa 1954
181
Tangsa platform house with thatch roof, Changlang Village
circa 1954
182
View from road to Changlang showing Marghereita
circa 1954
183
Headquarters of Tirap administration with tractor and jeep, Khela Village
circa 1954
184
Tangsa girl carrying chunga (bamboo tubes) in basket, Khela Village
circa 1954
185
Tangsa girls wearing crystal earrings husking rice with log mortar and pestle, Khela Village
circa 1954
186
Tangsa wearing dance costumes at Aministration Headquarters
circa 1954
Yogli Tangsa ethnic subgroup
item
187
Yogli man wearing hat decorated with boar tusks, human hair, and great Indian hornbill (dichoceros bicornis) feather beating drum
circa 1954
Lungri Tangsa ethnic subgroup
item
188
Lungri woman and others including child blinded by trachoma (eye disease) near pole house with mithun (bos frontalis) skulls
circa 1954
189
Lungri women spinning and rolling cotton
circa 1954
Moklum Tangsa ethnic subgroup
item
190
Moklum woman winnowing grain with basket
circa 1954
Nocte ethnic group
item
191
Nocte man with arm tattoo, hat with boar’s tusk and goat hair, cane waistband, and spear with goat and human hair, Kheti Village
circa 1954
192
Unmarried Nocte girl, Lapnam Village
circa 1954
193
Old Nocte woman with arm tattoos holding child, Lapnam Village
circa 1954
194
Married Nocte woman with arm tattoos, Lapnam Village
circa 1954
195
Nocte man with gun and shoulder bag on verandah of thatch house, Khonsa Village
circa 1954
196
Nocte men with cane waistbands, shoulder bags, and dao (knife)
circa 1954
197
Nocte man with gun, dao (knife), and great Indian hornbill (dichoceros bicornis) feather indicating that he has decapitated someone
circa 1954
198
Nocte man with plastic doll head indicating that he has decapitated someone
circa 1954
199
Nocte buildings, Laju Village
circa 1954
Wancho ethnic group
item
200
Wancho Ang’s (chief’s) daughters dressing their hair with split bamboo bands, cloth, and metallic thread, Pongchow Village (side view)
circa 1954
201 circa 1954
202
Wancho ang (chief) wearing head-hunter necklace carrying gun and dao (knife), Pongchow Village
circa 1954
203
Wancho Ang’s (chief’s) daughter wearing blue necklaces and armlets that can only be worn by Ang’s family, Pongchow Village
circa 1954
204
Wancho boy and Ang’s (chief’s) longhouse, Pongchow Village
circa 1954
205
Wancho woman with children winnowing millet with basket, Pongchow Village
circa 1954
206
Wancho ang (chief) beating kong (log drum), Pongchow Village
circa 1954
207
Wancho warrior sitting with dao (knife), Pongchow Village
circa 1954
208
Wancho ang (chief) and sons beating kong (log drum), Pongchow Village
circa 1954
209
Wancho man’s cane waistband, Pongchow Village
circa 1954
210
Wancho man with bamboo waistband carrying wood, Pongchow Village
circa 1954
211
Wancho ang (chief) with chest tattoo, two-hand headhunter board, dao (knife), and gun, Khanu or Konnu Village
circa 1954
212
Wancho man wearing red cloth and basket traditionally used for carrying human heads, Ninu or Minu Village
circa 1954
213
Wancho warrior with orchid leaf in earplug and bamboo around neck as talisman for successful hunt carrying gun and dao (knife), Lu Banfera Village
circa 1954
214
Wancho warrior holding dao (knife) wearing four hornbill feathers indicating that he has decapitated four people, Niausa Village (same as 215 but with stain on left side)
circa 1954
215
Wancho warrior holding dao (knife) and wearing four hornbill feathers indicating that he has decapitated four people, Niausa Village (same as 214 but with no stain on left side)
circa 1954
216
Jhum (slash and burn) fields on hills surrounding Niausa Village
circa 1954
217
Wancho girl carrying chunga (bamboo tubes) in basket with tumpline, Niausa Village
circa 1954
218
Wancho woman tattooing chief's daughter above the knee to indicate readiness for marriage (same girl in 219 and 220), Niausa Village
circa 1954
219
Wancho chief's daughter with teeth blackened from chewing betel nut (same girl in 218 and 220), Niausa Village
circa 1954
220
Wancho Ang’s (chief’s) daughter wearing bead marriage hat or crown (same girl in 218 and 219)
circa 1954
221
Wancho ang's (chief's) old wife making beer (apong) with chunga (bamboo tube), Niausa Village
circa 1954
222
Wancho man in warrior costume with bear fur carrying gun and dao (knife), Longkhow Village
circa 1954
223
Wood seated man carved by Wancho boy
circa 1954
224
Upper-class Wancho girl with exposed right thigh indicating that she is not the chief’s daughter carrying basket with tumpline
circa 1954
225
Two tattooed Wancho women carrying baskets with tumplines and reaping millet
circa 1954
226
Wancho man and woman harvesting millet with hills deforested by jhum (slash and burn)
circa 1954
227
Wancho men clearing jungle in preparation for jhum (slash and burn)
circa 1954
228
Wancho woman harvesting arum roots with child and basket with tumpline
circa 1954
229
Wancho men working in field
circa 1954
230
Wancho women collecting water in chunga (bamboo tubes) at village water point
circa 1954
231
Pregnant Wancho woman carrying water in chunga (bamboo tubes) in basket with tumplines
circa 1954
232
Upper-class Wancho girl, Wancho chief’s daughter, and former slave with shaved head pounding rice with pestles in log mortar with thatch houses
circa 1954
233
Lower-class Wancho woman with children
circa 1954
234
Wancho man wearing basket with mithun (bos frontalis) horn, human hair, and bamboo shavings
circa 1954
235
Wancho bamboo and pole grave with fruit and vegetable offerings
circa 1954
236
Wancho priest performing a divination ceremony before planting a new jhum (slash and burn) field
circa 1954
237
Wancho morung (dormitory for unmarried men)
circa 1954
238
Wancho dao (knife)
circa 1954
239
Wancho woman’s bangles or armlets only worn by chief’s family
circa 1954
240-241
Wancho man’s loincloth
circa 1954
242
Two Wancho men’s ivory armlets
circa 1954
243
Wancho women’s skirt with red, yellow, black, and white lines
circa 1954
244
Wancho wood carving of seated man
circa 1954
245
Wancho girl threshing millet (same girl in 246)
circa 1954
246
Wancho girl threshing millet (same girl in 245)
circa 1954

Naga portion of Assam now Nagaland StateReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Undetermined division or district
Phom Naga ethnic subgroup
item
247
Phom warrior with hornbill feather, head-hunter necklace, and spear
circa 1954
248
Phom warrior with head-hunter chest tattoo, hornbill feather, head-hunter necklace, and spear
circa 1954
249 circa 1954
250
Phom wood carving of animal
circa 1954
251
Three Phom ceramic pitchers
circa 1954
Sangtam Naga ethnic subgroup
item
252
Sangtam boy cutting steps in log with dao (knife)
circa 1954
253
Old Sangtam warrior in ceremonial costume with hornbill hat
circa 1954
Kalyo-Kengyu Naga ethnic subgroup
item
254
Kalyo-Kengyu warrior wearing cane hat with bear fur, boar tusks, and tiger claws
circa 1954
Chakhesang Naga ethnic subgroup
item
255
Chakhesang warrior with cowrie shell sash, loincloth, belt with brass shield, and disc earrings
circa 1954
Tuensang District now Mon District and Tuensang District
Landscape
item
256
Sutsu River near Tuensang
circa 1954
Multiple or undetermined ethnic groups
item
257
Young son of Wancho or Konyak ang’s (chief’s) son wearing blue ornaments that can only be worn by ang's (chief's) family, Nyasi Village
circa 1954
Naga ethnic group
item
258
Konyak or Lhota people wearing buffalo horns and feathers dancing in ceremony
circa 1954
Konyak Naga ethnic subgroup
item
259
Son of great ang (chief) with headhunter chest tattoo, Mon Village
circa 1954
260
Konyak headhunter skull shelf, Mon Village
circa 1954
261
Mithun (bos frontalis) skulls at the home of the great ang (chief), Mon Village
circa 1954
262-263
Two Ben-class (commoner-class) Konyak women of carrying chunga (bamboo tubes) in baskets with tumplines near pole longhouses with thatched roofs, Mon Village
circa 1954
264
Mon Village
circa 1954
265
Ben-class (commoner-class) Konyak man with head-hunter necklace and medicine-stopper earplugs, Mon Village
circa 1954
266 circa 1954
267
Konyak great ang (chief) wearing burmese tiger robe and holding whisk and spear in front of Menhir commemorating conquest and site of ritual sacrafice, Mon Village
circa 1954
268
Konyak ang (chief) with carved longhouse, gun, and dao (knife), Sangnyu Village
circa 1954
269
Konyak girl with ornaments, Sangnyu Village (same girl in 270)
circa 1954
270
Konyak girl with ornaments, Sangnyu Village (same girl in 269)
circa 1954
271
Konyak chief and two of his wives with bamboo houses, Sangnyu village
circa 1954
272
Konyak buildings, Sangnyu Village
circa 1954
273
Konyak girl with blackened teeth carrying basket with tumpline, Nyasi Village
circa 1954
274
Commoner-class Konyak woman with tattoos, child, and basket, Nyasi Village
circa 1954
Chang Naga ethnic subgroup
item
275 circa 1954
276
Carved wood pole with Chang symbols in front of Tuensnag craft center built with plaster covered poles and mud with teak timbers and corrugated metal to withstand earthquakes
circa 1954
277
Chang ang (chief) with three-headed headhunter necklace, tiger skin, and elephant tusks taken in hunts, Bangnyu Village
circa 1954
278
Chang man with headhunter chest tattoo, headhunter necklace, ear plugs, and cowrie-shell belt
circa 1954
279
Grave of Chang warrior with wood effigies, hand-woven red and black shawl, and other possessions
circa 1954
Sema Naga ethnic subgroup
item
280
Sema man with headhunter tattoos and lock of human hair in left ear
circa 1954
281
Two Sema men (one in traditional costume and one in modern costume) and pole and thatch longhouse
circa 1954
282
Sema people participating in district morung (dormitory for unmarried men) battle game using tin cans and shields at administrative center
circa 1954
283 circa 1954
Kohima District now Kohima District, Dimapur District, and Phek District
Landscape
item
284
WWII cemetery
circa 1954
Rengma Naga ethnic subgroup
item
285
Eastern Rengma dancing at festival
circa 1954
286
Eastern Rengma woman carrying child and chunga (bamboo tube) in basket with tumpline
circa 1954
Angami Naga ethnic subgroup
item
287
Angami warrior wearing elephant tusk amulets and feathers with background removed by hand
circa 1954
288
Angami men in warrior dress including hornbill-feather headdresses on Republic Day
circa 1954
Mokokchung District now Kokokchung District, Wokha District, and Zunhenboto Distirict
Lhota Naga ethnic subgroup
item
289
Two Lotha warriors, Ungma village
circa 1954
290
Lotha warrior with hornbill feather in bear-fur hat, boar-tusk necklace, goat-hair sash, spear, and dao (knife), Ungma village
circa 1954
Ao naga ethnic subgroup
item
291
Ao kong (log drum), Merangkong Village
circa 1954
292
Painted head on Ao kong (log drum), Merangkong Village
circa 1954
293
Young Ao woman in traditional chaddar (shawl) with plank door of longhouse, Yumchangr Village
circa 1954
294
Ao bamboo houses and children, Yamchungr Village
circa 1954
295 circa 1954
296
Ao man drinking zu (rice beer) from polished horn
circa 1954
297
Ao Dak Bungalow (traveler’s rest house) with wood carvings traditionally used for Morung (dormitory for unmarried men) near Makokchung
circa 1954

Meghalaya portion of Assam now Meghalaya StateReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Garo Hills District now West Garo Hills District and East Garo Hills District
Garo ethnic group
item
298
Garo woman with infant in sling
circa 1954
299
Garo man in warrior costume with sword and cane shield, Garo Hills
circa 1954
300
Garo men and girls dancing to flutes, drums and harmonica while recounting tribal legends
circa 1954
Khasi and Jaintia Hills District now West Khasi Hills District, East Khasi Hills District, and Jaintia Hills District
Lalung ethnic group
item
301
Lalung woman and child with rain-shield basket with tumpline near thatch house, Khasi and Jaintia Hills
circa 1954
Mikir ethnic group
item
302
Mikir woman with dao (knife) and basket with tumpline
circa 1954
303
Mikir man with bag and flute
circa 1954
Khasi ethnic group
item
304
Khasi woman with hand-woven cloak and basket near Shillong
circa 1954
305
Khasi man in front of building near Shillong
circa 1954
Nepali ethnic group
item
306
Nepali Gurkha woman with infant near Shillong
circa 1954

Manipur StateReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Imphal
Meithei ethnic group
item
307
Meithei dancers portraying Krishna and Radha in Ras Lila Ceremony
circa 1954

West Bengal StateReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Now Darjeeling District
Nepali ethnic group
item
308
Nepali bride
circa 1954
Sherpa ethnic group
item
309
Old Sherpa man with mani wheel (prayer wheel) and mala (prayer beads)
circa 1954
310
Sherpa girl from Khumba Region
circa 1954

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Adi (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Akha (Asian people)--Photographs
  • Apatani (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Costume--India--Photographs
  • Miri (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Mishmi (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Monpa (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Naga (South Asian people)--Photographs
  • Sherdukpen (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Tangsa (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Wancho (Indic people)--Photographs
  • Geographical Names :
  • Arunāchal Pradesh (India)--Photographs
  • India, Northeastern--Social life and customs--Photographs
  • Manipur (India)--Photographs
  • Meghalaya (India)--Photographs
  • Nāgāland (India)--Photographs
  • West Bengal (India)--Photographs
  • Form or Genre Terms :
  • Photographic prints
  • Other Creators :
    • Personal Names :
    • Elwin, Verrier, 1902-1964 (photographer)
    • Pal, Panna (photographer)

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Visual Materials Collections (University of Washington)