Harriette Cushman Extension Service Records, 1898-1975  PDF

Overview of the Collection

Creator
Cushman, Harriette Eliza, 1890-1978
Title
Harriette Cushman Extension Service Records
Dates
1898-1975
Quantity
2.6 linear feet
Collection Number
Accession 75040, MtBC, us (accession)
Summary
The Harriette Cushman Extension Service Records comprise a group of files from multiple accessions acquired over the course of several years. The files in this collection traverse a spectrum of Cushman’s working activities ranging from her career as Extension Poultry Specialist to working with the Friends of the Montana State College Library to improvement of Native American education, as well as documenting the Montana Extension Service history.
Repository
Montana State University Library, Merrill G. Burlingame Special Collections
Montana State University-Bozeman Library
Merrill G Burlingame Special Collections
P.O. Box 173320
Bozeman, MT
59717-3320
Telephone: 406-994-4242
Fax: 406-994-2851
spcoll@www.lib.montana.edu
Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research.

Languages
English


Biographical NoteReturn to Top

Harriette Cushman was born in Birmingham, Alabama, on December 6, 1890. She grew up in New York, attended Mt. Holyoke College, and obtained her degree in chemistry and bacteriology from Cornell University in 1914. She later earned a special certificate in poultry husbandry from Rutgers. Cushman worked as a bio-chemist but eventually began to work in the poultry industry. She worked in Idaho and later at the University of California. In 1922, she accepted a position at Montana State College. She worked as Extension Poultry Specialist until 1955. Harriette Cushman was one of the first women in her field. She led the formation of Montana's cooperative turkey marketing pools, worked to spread poultry production in the Indian reservations, and helped upgrade state poultry flocks and improve egg marketing. Along with other awards and recognition, Cushman was given the honorary degree of Doctor of Agriculture from Montana State University in 1963. During her retirement, Harriette worked with 4H, the Montana Institute of the Arts, the Friends of the Library, the Museum of the Rockies, assisted Indian youth through Montana State University, and worked to benefit Montana's natural resources. She died in 1978.

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

The Harriette Cushman Extension Service Records comprise a group of files from multiple accessions acquired over the course of several years. The files in this collection traverse a spectrum of Cushman’s working activities ranging from her career as Extension Poultry Specialist to working with the Friends of the Montana State College Library to improvement of Native American education, as well as documenting the Montana Extension Service history. Of interest is Cushman’s unpublished manuscript “Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service” in series four, referenced by Merrill G. Burlingame for his text The Montana Cooperative Extension Service: a History. The collection has been divided into seven series developed by Cushman to organize her work. Each series has been categorized alphabetically then chronologically when appropriate. When possible the folder titles provided by Cushman have been utilized and denoted by quotations (“ ”).

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top

Series 1:  CorrespondenceReturn to Top

Primarily business correspondence, the letters in this series were either written to Cushman or her predecessors in the extension service and the university. The letters relate primarily to Cushman's poultry work, extension activities, and work with the Friends of the Montana State College Library. Correspondents include Merrill G. Burlingame, Minnie Paugh, Leslie Heathcote, Frederic B. Linfield, M. L. Wilson, Carl H. Peterson, and Montana State Senator James Griffin. An index card file precedes the letters. These cards were kept by Cushman to track extension service inquiries by county of origin. The cards were completed with the name and address of the writer, the nature of the request, and the date. The actual inquiry letters were apparently discarded by Cushman after recording the information on the cards.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
1/1
Card File - Correspondents
[by county]
2/1
“Frederic B. Linfield”
1898
2/2
“Frederic B. Linfield”
1908
2/3
“Frederic B. Linfield”
1910-1912
2/4
“Friends of the MSC Library”
1952-1953
2/5
“Friends of the MSC Library”
1961-1962
2/6
“Friends of the MSC Library”
1963
2/7
“Friends of the MSC Library”
1964-1966
2/8
“Harriette Cushman”
1927
2/9
“Harriette Cushman”
1932-1939
2/10
“Harriette Cushman”
1940
2/11
“Harriette Cushman”
1956
2/12
“Milburn L. Wilson”
1913-1914
2/13
“Milburn L. Wilson”
1915-1919
2/14
“Milburn L. Wilson”
1922-1924
2/15
“Senator James Griffin”
1916
2/16
“Senator James Griffin”
1927

Series 2:  Extension Service Administrative RecordsReturn to Top

Documents pertaining to the financial, contractual, and general faculty activities of Cushman during and after her tenure as Extension Poultry Specialist for Montana State College.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
2/17
Cooperative extension service in agricultural and home economics; poultry account
2/18
Contracts
Faculty record
1922-1951
2/19
Estimated Expenditures–Poultry Account
1901-1902
2/20
Farm family account book
1941
2/21
Outstanding Alumni Award–Virginia Ferguson Dougherty
1978
2/22
“People Partners” Grant-Geraldine Fenn
1975

Series 3:  Extension Service Annual ReportsReturn to Top

Carbon copies and original typescripts for various weekly, annual and committee reports produced by Cushman's colleagues in the Extension Service. The reports cover a range of areas from agronomy to botany to farm management to land economics. Some reports contain photographs that pertain directly to the text have been retained to prevent the disruption of context. A few of these reports are duplicated in Accession 00021, the Montana State University Extension Service Records, 1912-1970.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
2/23
Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, Annual Report
1922
2/24
Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, Annual Report
1923
2/25
Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, Annual Report
1924
2/26
Agronomist; Arthur J. Ogaard, Annual Report
1925
2/27
Agronomist; Frank E. Fuller, Annual Report
1919
2/28
Agronomist; F.E. Price, Annual Report
1922
2/29
Agronomist; Floyd J. Chase, Annual Report
1916
2/30
Annual conference; Project Committee Reports
1923
2/31
Botanist; Harry M. Jennison, Annual Report
1918
2/32
ounty Agent-Meagher and Wheatland; W.H. Fluhr, Annual Report
1917
3/1
County Agent-Rosebud; Home Demonstration Agents, Monthly Reports
1926-1928
3/2
County Agent-Rosebud; Ralph D. Mercer, Monthly Reports
1925-1928
3/3
Demonstration Farm Project; Annual Summary
1945-1946
3/4
Emergency Demonstration; Samuel J. Hampton, Annual Report
1918
3/5
Farm Management; A.J. Copeland, Annual Report
1919
3/6
Farm Management; Edward H. Riley, Annual Report
1921
3/7
Farm Management; Milburn L. Wilson, Annual Report
1922
3/8
Farm Management; Milburn L. Wilson and Virgil D. Gilman, Annual Report
1924
3/9
Farm Management; Virgil D. Gilman, Annual Report
1925
3/10
arm Management; Virgil D. Gilman, Annual Report
[8 b/w prints]
1926
3/11
Farm Management; William J. Hartman, Annual Report
1920
3/12
Land Economics; H.G. Bolster, Annual Report
1939
3/13
Land Economics; Robert B. Tootell, Annual Report
1931
3/14
Land Economics; Robert B. Tootell, Annual Report
[6 b/w prints]
1933
3/15
Land Economics; Robert B. Tootell and H.G. Bolster, Annual Report
1934

Series 4:  Extension Service HistoryReturn to Top

This series pertains to Cushman's writings on the history and development of the Montana Extension Service. Two unpublished manuscripts are present, (“Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service”) a general accounting of the extension service, and the second (“On State Request”) a more descriptive tale of Cushman’s relationship with the extension service. The series also includes her correspondence, notes, and research pertaining to her inquiries into this topic. Subjects range from dairy to 4H to sheep and cattle, as well as home demonstration, flood irrigation, agronomy, poultry, food and nutrition, etc. In compiling her notes and research, Cushman used questionnaires, in addition to corresponding with former colleagues such as Fred S. Cooley, William J. Hartman, Milburn L. Wilson, Ignatius D. O’Donnell, Arthur J. Ogaard, and Carl H. Peterson. Although some of her final work was partially used by Merrill G. Burlingame in his The Montana Cooperative Extension Service: a history, 1893-1974, neither of Cushman's manuscripts were ever published in their entirety.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
3/16
“Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service – Draft”
4/1
“Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service - First Carbon”
4/2
“Built for the Land: A History of the Montana Extension Service - Original Typescript”
4/3
“Child Care Programs”
4/4
Dairy Extension – John O. Tretsven, Frank Hillman, and Walter E. Thomson
4/5
“History of Sheep Industry in Montana”
4/6
“Home demonstration work”
4/7
“Howard Welch”
4/8
“J. Fred Toman”
[1 b/w print]
4/9
“James M. Hamilton”
4/10
“John C. Taylor”
[4 b/w prints]
4/11
Manuscript Correspondence
1938-1939
4/12
Manuscript Correspondence
1953-1954
4/13
Manuscript Correspondence
1963-1964
4/14
“Materials for History of Extension Work”
[25 b/w prints]
4/15
“Montana’s Contribution to the New Deal Farm Policies; Roy E. Huffman”
4/16
“Notes”
4/17
“On State Request – Draft”
4/18
“Questionnaires – A-L”
4/19
“Questionnaires – M-Z”
[5 b/w prints]
5/1
“Starting an Experiment Station in the West – Frederic B. Linfield”
5/2
“Wallace Murdock”
5/3
“4-H Work Histories”
[1 b/w print]
5/4
“Cattle Purchase, Power River County and Custer County – George W. Gustafson and Herschell D. Hurd”
1934

Series 5:  Plains Indian CenterReturn to Top

This series documents Cushman’s efforts to establish a tribute to colleague Verne Dusenberry in the form of a Plains Indian Center at Montana State University. The correspondence, proposal, and research materials document her interest in improving the education and training of Native Americans through the creation of the Indian Center.

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
5/5
Indian Center; Correspondence
1966-1967
5/6
Indian Center; Correspondence
1968-1969
5/7
Indian Center; Correspondence
1970-1972
5/8
Indian Center; Correspondence
1973
5/9
Indian Center; Correspondence
1974
5/10
Indian Center; Correspondence
1975-1979
5/11
Indian Center; “Miscellaneous Materials”
5/12
“Native American Studies Center; Proposal”
1974
5/13
“Program Research”

Series 6:  Poultry RecordsReturn to Top

This series contains three card files pertaining to Cushman’s work on poultry; the arrangement of these files preserves the creator’s original organization. Organized by county, the first card file documents Cushman’s visits around the state. The second card file (arranged by owner) and third card file (arranged by breed) pertain to poultry flocks in Montana. This series also includes Cushman’s daily reports (a calendar record of activities), her memo book (a hodgepodge of notes relating to poultry, 4H, and miscellaneous facts), and her notebook (collection of daily reports from 1953-1954, addresses, lists, and reference material on poultry housing, diseases, production, feed, etc.)

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
5/14
“Daily reports”
1928-1939
5/15
“Daily reports”
1940-1949
5/16
“Daily reports”
1952
6/1
Card File – County Visits
6/2
Card File – Flock Records
[alphabetical by owner]
circa 1933-1945
6/3
Card File – Poultry Flock
[by breed]
7/1
Memo Book
7/2
Notebook

Series 7:  Poultry PhotographsReturn to Top

This series contains images relating to Cushman’s poultry work. Photographs provide images of individual poultry, flocks of poultry, poultry structures, and testing of poultry. The photographs have been sequentially numbered and identified with the pound sign (#).

Container(s) Description
Box/Folder
1/10
#1-21
#1–6, Poultry – Individual
#7–11, Poultry – Flock
#12–17, Poultry Structures
#18–21, Poultry Testing

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Agricultural extension work
  • Agricultural extension work -- Montana -- Bozeman
  • Indians of North America -- Education (Higher)
  • Indians of North America -- Education (Higher) -- Montana -- Bozeman
  • Poultry -- Breeding
  • Poultry -- Breeding -- Montana -- Photographs
  • Poultry -- Breeding -- Montana
  • Universities and colleges -- Faculty
  • Corporate Names :
  • Montana State College. Cooperative Extension Service
  • Montana State College. Cooperative Extension Service
  • Montana State College. Cooperative Extension Service -- History
  • Montana State College. Library. Friends
  • Montana State University--Bozeman
  • Montana State University--Bozeman
  • Montana State University--Bozeman -- Faculty
  • Plains Indian Center (Montana State University)
  • Geographical Names :
  • Montana
  • Montana -- Bozeman
  • Form or Genre Terms :
  • Aerial photographs
  • History
  • Occupations :
  • Poultry scientists -- Montana -- Bozeman
  • Women agricultural extension workers -- Montana -- Bozeman
  • Women college teachers -- Montana -- Bozeman
  • Other Creators :
    • Personal Names :
    • Cushman, Harriette Eliza, 1890-1978. Built for the land: a history of the Montana Extension Service.
    • Corporate Names :
    • Montana State College. Cooperative Extension Service