Coalition Against Oil Pollution records, 1970-1981  PDF

Overview of the Collection

Creator
Coalition Against Oil Pollution (Wash.)
Title
Coalition Against Oil Pollution records
Dates
1970-1981 (inclusive)
Quantity
8.17 cubic feet (10 boxes)
Collection Number
3599 (Accession No. 3599-003)
Summary
Records of an environmental organization founded to oppose the establishment of oil ports and off-loading facilities on Puget Sound in Washington State.
Repository
University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections
Special Collections
University of Washington Libraries
Box 352900
Seattle, WA
98195-2900
Telephone: 206-543-1929
Fax: 206-543-1931
speccoll@uw.edu
Access Restrictions

The records are open to all users.

Languages
English
Sponsor
Funding for encoding this finding aid was partially provided through a grant awarded by the National Endowment for the Humanities.


Historical NoteReturn to Top

The Coalition Against Oil Pollution (CAOP) was founded in 1972 by Robert Lynette as a non-partisan organization to protect the waters of Puget Sound in Washington State. It opposed the opening on Puget Sound of oil ports and off-loading facilities that would connect with the proposed Northern Tier Pipeline. The coalition included both individuals and organizations, such as the Washington Environmental Council, and claimed to have support from environmentalists, tourist industry representatives, and commercial fishermen. CAOP constantly pushed for oil tankers to unload their crude oil at or west of Port Angeles, Washington, and won many legislative and legal victories. However, discord erupted within the coalition as many environmentalists began to feel that it only opposed oil tankers in Puget Sound, while remaining blind to the dangers of an oil pipeline across the state and supertankers in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

Oil tankers in Puget Sound became a pressing issue during the energy crisis of the 1970s. The upper Midwest of the United States got much of its crude from Canada, which had already cut back on oil exports and announced that after 1982 it would no longer sell oil abroad. To compensate for the loss of Canadian oil, more crude had to be brought in from the Middle East, Indonesia, and the newly exploited fields of Alaska. Puget Sound was a logical receiving point for much of this oil, where there were already refineries and where a pipeline could be built to transport crude to Montana and Minnesota. The Northern Tier Pipeline Company was the first to propose a pipeline from Washington to the Midwest; it remained at the center of debates throughout the period.

The development of supertankers in the 1960s and 1970s exacerbated the situation. The coalition’s data showed that these larger ships not only spilled more oil, but were more prone to accidents. When Northern Tier planned to bring supertankers to Anacortes and Cherry Point in northern Puget Sound, the CAOP opposed it. In 1975 the coalition won its first major victory when the state legislature passed the Tug Escort Law, which banned oil tankers over 125,000 deadweight tons (dwt) from entering Puget Sound for at least two years (supertankers could be as large as 1,000,000 dwt). In 1976 the coalition won another victory when Governor Dan Evans amended the state’s Coastal Zones Management Plan to prevent construction of supertanker docks in Puget Sound.

Although the coalition had succeeded in gaining favorable legislation and policies from the state government, the political landscape changed dramatically in 1977, when Dixy Lee Ray became governor. Ray had close ties to the oil industry and promised to approve a supertanker port at Cherry Point. Fortunately for the coalition, the federal government took control of the issue, when United States Senator Warren Magnuson inserted an amendment into the Marine Mammals Protection Act of 1977 to prevent construction of a “superport” in Puget Sound.

While the CAOP did not want more oil tankers in Puget Sound, it had never opposed building a superport at or west of Port Angeles with a pipeline going around—but not across—Puget Sound. The reasoning behind its endorsement of such a compromise was that there was less chance of a spill if tankers did not cross into Puget Sound, and a spill in the Strait of Juan de Fuca would be much less harmful than one in Puget Sound.

As this compromise plan began to look more like a possibility after 1975, many people and organizations who had supported the Coalition Against Oil Pollution began to turn against it. Arguing that any oilport or pipeline would be too hazardous, an environmental group called No Oilport formed in 1975 to oppose the coalition’s compromise plan. Many citizens also opposed the CAOP’s compromise, which became apparent when 65 percent of Port Angeles voters showed their disapproval in a plebiscite. Despite opposition to an oilport, coalition founder Bob Lynette said, “The superport is a bitter pill that the people of Port Angeles are going to have swallow.”

In 1977 the Coalition Against Oil Pollution underwent changes in its leadership. Jay Pearson replaced Lynette as executive director and Mike Galvin became president. Friction between the coalition and its members continued to grow as it softened its stance further and considered endorsing a Northern Tier plan that would build a pipeline through, rather than around Puget Sound and Whidbey Island. In 1977 the Washington Environmental Council, over the coalition’s objection, passed a resolution to oppose any transshipment of oil through Washington State. In 1978 the Seattle Audubon Society withdrew its CAOP membership, and in 1979 the coalition’s lobbyist, Dan Seligman, resigned because he felt the coalition had abandoned its environmental goals to promote the Northern Tier pipeline.

In 1980 Northern Tier received the CAOP's approval to build a pipeline through Puget Sound, while eight environmental organizations, nine Indian tribes, and two local governments tried to block the plan through litigation. In 1981 Northern Tier suffered another setback when the Washington Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council recommended that Governor John Spellman reject the company’s application for a Port Angeles superport and underwater pipeline. Despite pressure from the U.S. President Ronald Reagan administration and many national politicians, Spellman rejected the application. As of 1997, no superport has been built on the Olympic Peninsula and only tankers under 125,000 dwt cross Puget Sound.

The Coalition Against Oil Pollution disbanded in 1982.

Content DescriptionReturn to Top

The records of the Coalition Against Oil Polution includes minutes, correspondence, reports, legislation, newsletters, testimony, court papers, clippings, ephemera, slides, and a scrapbook dating from 1970 to 1981. Much of the collection consists of documents from various officers and lobbyists for the CAOP. William Becker and Thomas H.S. Brucker, both of whose activities are documented in these records, were attorneys for the coalition, and Martin Baker was a lobbyist. Major correspondents include Senator Warren G. Magnuson, Senator Henry M. Jackson, Governor Daniel Evans, Governor Dixy Lee Ray, President Jimmy Carter, the Army Corps of Engineers, Northern Tier Pipeline Co., Thomas H.S. Brucker, Robert Lynette, and Mike Galvin. Also represented in the records are the Washington Environmental Council and the Oceanographic Commission of Washington.

Use of the CollectionReturn to Top

Restrictions on Use

The literary rights of representatives of the records-creating organization have been transferred to the University of Washington Libraries.

Preferred Citation

Coalition Against Oil Pollution Records. Special Collections Division, University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, Washington.

Administrative InformationReturn to Top


Detailed Description of the CollectionReturn to Top

 

Organizational Files, 1971-1980, undatedReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Box/Folder
1/1
Organizational Information
undated
1/2
General Correspondence
1972-1979, undated
Minutes
Box/Folder
1/3
Coalition Against Oil Pollution Board
1972-1978
1/4
Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council
1977-1978
1/5
Others
1975-1980
Newsletters
Box/Folder
1/6
Coalition Against Oil Pollution
1972-1977
1/7
Sierra Club
1972
Box/Folder
1/8
Journal -- Ecolibrium
1977
Lists
Box/Folder
1/9
Membership
1976-1977
1/10
Mailing
1976-1978
1/11
Contacts
1972-1976
Court Papers
Box/Folder
1/12-15
ARCO v. Evans
1975-1976
1/16
ARCO v. Evans -- Evans' Appeal
1976-1977
1/17
Clallam County v. United States
1976-1977
1/18-19
Coalition Against Oil Pollution v. the State of Washington
1977
1/20
Northern Tier Application
1976-1979
1/21
Miscellaneous
1976, undated
Box/Folder
1/22
Testimony
undated
1/23
Legislation -- California
1978
Reports
Box/Folder
2/1
Coalition Against Oil Pollution
1979, undated
2/2-3
Concerning Puget Sound
1973, 1974, 1977
2/4-5
Concerning Washington State
1971, 1975-1978
2/6
Concerning the Pacific Northwest
1975, undated
2/7
Tanker Metula
1974-1975
2/8
Alaska North Slope
1975-1977
2/9-12
Alaska North Slope Petroleum
1976
2/13
Oil and Marine Environments
1972-1975, undated
2/14-15
Miscellaneous
1975-1977, undated
Box/Folder
2/16-17
Environmental Impact Statements
1977, undated
3/1-2
Clippings
undated
box:oversize
10
Scrapbook
1971-1976
Box/Folder
3/3
Ephemera
undated

Officers and Lobbyist Papers, 1970-1980, undatedReturn to Top

Container(s) Description Dates
Lynette, Robert
General Correspondence
Box/Folder
3/4
Evans, Daniel J.
1974
3/5
Jackson, Henry M.
1973-1975
3/6
Magnuson, Warren G.
1973-1977, undated
3/7
U.S. Congressmen from Washington State
1974-1978
3/8-9
Miscellaneous Chronological Files
1972-1978, undated
Box/Folder
3/10
Memoranda -- Oil Barrel Tax
1975
Legislation
Box/Folder
3/11
California Legislation
1978
3/12
Durkan Resolution (Washington State Senate Resolution 209)
1974
3/13-14
Federal Legislation
1972-1975
3/15
House Bill 559: Oil Transfer and Safety Act
1975
3/16
Legislative Effort
1977
3/17
Ports and Waterways Safety Act
1972-1977
3/18
Refinery Siting Bill
1973-1975
3/19
Tanker Liability
1975-1977
3/20
Tug Escort Act (Washington State House Bill 527)
1975
3/21-22
Washington State Legislation
1971-1976
3/23
Other
1972-1976
Box/Folder
3/24
Legal Documents
1973-1975
Lists
Box/Folder
3/25
Congressional Committees
undated
3/26
Contacts
undated
3/27
Environmental Groups and Organizations
undated
Box/Folder
3/28
Flyers
1972-1977
Slide Show
Box/Folder
3/29
Information and Slides
1974
3/30
Originals
1974
Box/Folder
3/31
Transparencies
undated
4/1
Slides
undated
4/2
Negatives
undated
4/3
Audiotape Reel
undated
4/4
Bibliographies
undated
4/5
Directory -- Environmental Protection Agency
undated
Newsletters
Box/Folder
4/6
Environmental Protection Agency
1977-1978
4/7
Miscellaneous
1973-1978
Reports
Box/Folder
4/8
Captain M.M. Walk
undated
4/9
Others
undated
Box/Folder
4/10
News Releases
1973-1978, undated
4/11
Testimony
1973-1977
4/12
Notes
undated
4/13
Clippings
1971-1977
4/14
Miscellany
undated
Subject Files
Box/Folder
4/15
Air Quality
1974-1976
4/16-17
Alaska Pipeline
1971-1973
4/18
Aqua Culture Businesses
1972
4/19
ARCO
1975-1977
4/20
Bellevue Pipeline
1973-1974
4/21
Boating Groups
1971-1972
4/22
Canadian Allocation
1975-1976
4/23
Coalition Against Oil Pollution Taxes
1975
4/24
Casualty Rates
1978
4/25
Chamber of Commerce, Seattle
1974-1976
4/26
Cherry Point
1971-1974
4/27
Commercial Fishermen
1973
4/28
Community Organizations and Contacts
1971
4/29
Contributors
1970-1977
4/30
Costs of Oil Spills, etc.
undated
4/31
Deep Water Ports
1972-1974
4/32
Deschamps, Captain Robert
1972-1976
4/33
Drilling
1970-1975
4/34
Economic Development Council
1973-1974
4/35
Economics
1972-1975
4/36
Environmental Organizations -- New England
1973-1978
4/37
Evans, Governor Daniel J.
1975
4/38
Financial Data
1972-1976
4/39
Highway Energy Studies
1971-1972
4/40
Information on Grants
undated
4/41
Kitimat Terminal
1976-1978
4/42
Legal Aspects
1974-1977
4/43
Lindholm, Captain George
1974-1975
4/44
Magnuson, Warren G.
1974-1975
4/45
Mobil Oil Corporation
1977
5/1-3
Monobuoys
1971-1974
5/4
Northwest Oil Port Proposal
1975
5/5-6
Oil and the Northwest
1973-1977
5/7
Oil Clean-up
1973-1976
5/8
Oil Industry
1972-1978
5/9
Oil Spills -- General
1971-1977
5/10
Outer Continental Shelf
1975
5/11
Perry, Robert, Representative
1973-1975
5/12
Pipeline Hearing
1973
5/13
Pittston County, Maine -- Laws, Rulings
1971-1975
5/14
Port Angeles
1975-1978
5/15-16
Puget Sound and Oil
1972-1978
5/17
Puget Sound Council
1974
5/18
Puget Sound Pilots
1972-1978
5/19
Ray, Governor Dixy Lee
1976-1977
5/20
Shoreline Management
1971-1975
5/21
Sierra Club
1972-1977
5/22
SOHIO-BP Tanker Terminal (California)
1977
5/23
State Experts
1973-1976
5/24
Superspill
1974
5/25
Tanker Construction
1974-1975
5/26
U.S. Coast Guard
1975-1977
5/27
U.S. Federal Energy Administration
1975-1977
5/28
Washington Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council
1975-1977
5/29
Washington Legislature, Energy and Utilities Committees
1977-1978
5/30
Washington Legislature, House of Representatives, Transportation and Utilities Committee
1975-1977
5/31
Washington Oceanographic Commission (OCW)
1972-1977
5/32
West Falmouth, Massachusetts, Oil Spill
1973-1974
Galvin, Mike
Box/Folder
6/1
Outgoing Letters -- Carter, Jimmy
1977-1979, undated
General Correspondence
Box/Folder
6/2
Jackson, Henry M.
1977-1981
6/3
Magnuson, Warren G.
1977-1980, undated
6/4
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
1975-1980
6/5
Northern Tier Pipeline Company
1977-1980
6/6
U.S. Congressmen from Washington State
1977-1980
6/7-10
Miscellaneous Chronological
1972-1981, undated
Legislation
Box/Folder
6/11
General
1976-1979
6/12
Northern Tier States
1976
6/13
Federal Legislation
1977
Box/Folder
6/14
Legal Documents
1976, 1978
6/15
Court Papers
1977-1978
6/16
Resolutions (Non-Coalition Against Oil Pollution)
1979
6/17
Speeches and Writings
undated
6/18
Articles
undated
6/19
Lists
undated
6/20
Pamphlets
undated
6/21
Notes
undated
6/22
Transparencies
undated
6/23
Newletters
1977-1979
News Releases
Box/Folder
6/24
Coalition Against Oil Pollution
1977-1979, undated
6/25
Others
1977-1980
Box/Folder
6/26
Testimony
undated
6/27
Originals
undated
Reports
Box/Folder
6/28
Coalition Against Oil Pollution
undated
6/29
ConcerningWashington State
undated
6/30
Northern Tier Pipeline
1977-1978
6/31
Biological/Ecological Impact
1970-1977
7/1
Miscellaneous
1977-1978, undated
Environmental Impact Statements
Box/Folder
7/2-5
ARCO/TM
undated
7/6
Miscellaneous
1976-1977
Box/Folder
7/7
Miscellany
undated
7/8
Ephemera
undated
7/9-12
Clippings
undated
Subject Files
Box/Folder
7/13
BN/GATX Proposal
1978
7/14
Canada
1977-1979
7/15
Coastal Zone Management
1975-1977
7/16
Department of Energy Hearings Concerning Alaskan Oil
1978
7/17
Environmental Articles and Statements
1976-1980
7/18
Evans Amendment
1975-1979
7/19
Federal Effort
1977
7/20
Fund Raising
1978
7/21
Legal Material
1975-1978
7/22
Legal Proceedings
1976-1979
7/23
Liquid Natural Gas
undated
8/1
LNG/LPG Study
1977-1978
8/2
Media
1978
8/3
No Oilport
1976-1979
8/4-7
Northern Tier Pipeline
1977-1979
8/8
Northern Tier Pipeline Inquiry
1978-1979
8/9
Northwest Electrical Energy Conservation Project
1977-1978
8/10
Ocean Pollution Workshop
1978
8/11
Oil Ports Inquiry
1977-1978
9/1
Other Environmental Groups
1977-1978
9/2
U.S. Department of Energy
1978
9/3
Washington Energy Policy Council
1974-1978
9/4
Washington Oceanographic Commission
1977
Box/Folder
9/5
Coalition Against Oil Pollution, Directors Board
1977-1979
9/6-7
Baker, Martin
1976-1978
9/8
Becker, William A.
1976-1977
9/9
Brucker, Thomas H. S.
1977-1978
9/10
Pearson, Jay
1977
9/11
Seligman, Dan
1974-1976
9/12
Washington Environmental Council
1976-1981
9/13
Duplicates
undated

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Environmental protection--Washington (State)
  • Oil pollution of rivers, harbors, etc.--Law and legislation--Washington (State)
  • Oil pollution of rivers, harbors, etc.--Washington (State)
  • Oil pollution of rivers, harbors, etc.--Washington (State)--Puget Sound
  • Oil pollution of the sea--Law and legislation--Washington (State)
  • Oil pollution of the sea--Washington (State)
  • Oil spills--Prevention
  • Petroleum pipelines--Washington (State)
  • Petroleum--Transportation--Law and legislation--Washington (State)
  • Petroleum--Transportation--Washington (State)--Puget Sound
  • Tankers--Law and legislation--Washington (State)
  • Personal Names :
  • Baker, Martin W
  • Becker, William A
  • Brucker, Thomas H. S
  • Carter, Jimmy, 1924-
  • Evans, Daniel J., 1925-
  • Galvin, Mike
  • Jackson, Henry M. (Henry Martin), 1912-1983
  • Lynette, Robert
  • Magnuson, Warren G. (Warren Grant), 1905-1989
  • Ray, Dixy Lee
  • Seligman, Daniel
  • Corporate Names :
  • Coalition Against Oil Pollution (Wash.)--Archives
  • Northern Tier Pipeline Company
  • Oceanographic Commission of Washington
  • United States. Army Corps. of Engineers
  • Washington Environmental Council
  • Geographical Names :
  • Northern Tier Pipeline
  • Puget Sound (Wash.)--Environmental conditions
  • Form or Genre Terms :
  • Bills, legislative
  • Clippings (Books, newspapers, etc.)
  • correspondence
  • legal files
  • minutes
  • Newsletters
  • Press releases
  • reports
  • Scrapbooks
  • Slides
  • testimonies
  • Transparencies

Names and SubjectsReturn to Top

  • Subject Terms :
  • Personal Papers/Corporate Records (University of Washington)